The Theories And Content Theories

1994 WordsJan 16, 20158 Pages
Researchers has defined motivation as a “process of governing choices made by a person” Vroom (1964) cited in Wilsons (2010), however Mullins (2005) defined motivation as the driving force within individuals by which they attempt to achieve some goal in order to fulfil some need/expectation. The two factors of motivation, extrinsic motivation is driven by externally administered reward, such as pay rise. On the other side, the intrinsic motivation is determined by an interest in the task self, (Wilsons, 2010). According to Deci (2009), there have been many theories that have been useful in explaining why some employees are not motivated at the workplace, but most frequently theories are the process and content theories. Content theory “attempts to explain those specific attributes which actually motivate the individuals at work and are concerned with identifying people’s needs, the strength of those needs and the goals, they pursue in order to satisfy those needs” (Mullins, 2005). It is important to understand that employees are unique and different in their own ways, (Myers, 2013). Alongside, managers need to be aware of their unique ways, needs and goals. Therefore managers must develop a way to meet their needs. Content theory focuses more on factors within a person that energize direct effect. This is where Maslow’s five levels of needs hierarchy, Alderfer three levels hierarchy, McChelland three learned needs acquired from cultures achievement/powers and Herzberg
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