The Theories And Theories Of Criminology

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Introduction Criminology has emerged as a science in the recent years, and various theories and perspectives have been developed by the social scientists and criminologists in this regard. With the development of sociology as a new subject of study and defining the sociology by the August Comte in 1822, the way was paved for the development of criminology, as the new branch of study. This Branch deals with the study of crime and it gradually developed as academic discipline in Britain in 1950s. Cesare Lombroso became the founder of criminology which also founded the positivist movement in the criminology, thus giving this field a more scientific and modern approach (Anon., 2014). The main features of the positivist approach include the…show more content…
Causes of crime The positivism in the criminology is a combination of logic and scientism which are related to epistemological phenomenon linked with the scientific progress. The causes of the crime in the positivist criminology can be related to biological, psychological and social reasons as proposed by the Lombroso, Feud, and Durkheim. As per biological theory, proposed by the Lombroso as a profound proponent who based his theory of the cause of crime on phrenology, states that the criminal character is defined by the shape of the skull of the individual. Lombroso based the causes of crime on physical features and called them as “born criminals “ or “Atavistic man” (Lombroso C, 2006) The social positivism emphasizes the social factors as cause of crime and the basic theory followed in this regard is Chicago school of thought which focuses on human ecology as the main cause of the crime and is considered to be a driving factor for the criminal behavior. It considers the criminals as product of their society and proposes that the environment, urbanization, and social environment in which the criminal lives determines his attributes and criminal behavior (Cullen, 2010). Therefore, the Chicago school of criminology emphasizes that the criminals are not born they are made by the society and the environment in which they
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