The Theories Believe Biological Or Genetic Risk Factors

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Abstract
Biosocial theories believe biological or genetic risk factors along with their environment impact an individual’s predisposition to engage in criminal behavior throughout their life. The biological risk factors tied with their environment can also impact an individual’s predilection to develop antisocial behavior or tendencies, violent or aggressive behavior, impulsivity, lack of social responsibility and their ability to learn complex behavior patterns. Several empirical studies regarding biosocial theory and its components will be reviewed within this paper followed by an explanation as to why a policy in policing and corrections with its basis in biosocial theory would not be effective.

Biosocial theory is a theory
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Caspi et al. (1994) conducted a study that determined specific personality differences are linked to crime without regard to race, age, or geographical location. Through comparison of a male and female birth cohort in New Zealand and an ethnically diverse group of 12-13-year-old boys in the United States, Caspi et al. (1994) determined, “robust personality correlates to delinquency (pg. 179).” Their study found that individuals that engaged in delinquency, “preferred rebelliousness to conventionality, behaved impulsively rather than cautiously, and were likely to take advantage of others (pg.180).” Further personality testing amongst all the individuals showed the individuals that engaged in delinquency tended to become easily upset or agitated with their friends when they felt betrayed or used by their friends (Caspi et al., 1994).
Caspi et al. (1994) concluded the greater negative emotionality capability and less constraint an individual had, would lead to an increased delinquency and theoretically, antisocial behavior would be likely in that individual. Individuals in the study that demonstrated negative correlations with constraint levels, meaning the individuals responded to “frustrating events,” with strong negative emotions, “were likely to be impulsive, danger-seeking, and rejecting
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