The Theories Of Needs And Two Types Of Motivation

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2.5 Motivation

Motivation is an important part of psychological research (Deci & Ryan 1985). Based on different reasons of actions, motivation can be divided into two types. They are intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Intrinsic motivation is a kind of “non-drive based” motivation (Deci & Ryan, 1985). It means that people interest in the activities and enjoy the process of taking part in activities. While extrinsic motivation refers to the motivation that people take part in the activities in order to get other kinds of rewards, such as money and praise (Deci & Ryan 1985).

Moreover, motivation occurs when a consumer has his/her need, desire, or wants something (Solomon, Polegato & Zaichkowsky, 2009). According to the theory of Maslow hierarchy needs, the needs can be divided into five groups: physiological needs, safety needs, love and belonging needs, esteem needs and self-actualization needs (Maslow,1943).

Figure 2.1 Maslow's hierarchy of needs
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Humans have to eat, drink, and breathe in order to survive (Maslow, 1943). These needs should be satisfied first (Reid-Cunningham, 2008). Secondly, safety needs refer to people’s securities, for example job security, living in a safe environment, and being healthy. Safety needs come after the physiological needs (Ondabu, 2014). Thirdly, love and belonging needs refer to the love from family, friends, and society (Maslow, 1943). In this step, people want to be a member of a group and want to be accepted and loved by the group members (Reid-Cunningham,
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