The Theory Of Psychology As A Science Essay

934 WordsDec 11, 20164 Pages
The behaviourists viewed psychology as a science and believed that everything had to be observable and measurable. Skinner believed that humans are born a blank slate and our behaviour is moulded through experiences with and in our environments. Through classical and operant conditioning, we are shaped by socialisation, punishment and reinforcement; as Skinner stated (1953:91) ‘Operant conditioning shapes behaviour as a sculptor shapes a lump of clay.’ Talk about Skinner study into rats in the box. Conversely, the psychodynamic approach focused on peoples’ unconscious motives and emotions. Freud believed that the mind was driven by three elements, these elements make up personality: the id ‘the true psychic reality’ (Hall date :26). The workings of the id are unconscious and are driven by the pleasure principle whose aim is to avoid pain and find pleasure by releasing tension (Hall date:22). Freud believed the pleasure principle drove people’s sexual desires. The Ego, run by the reality principle; mediates between the id and the Superego. The final element is the Superego; the moral branch of the three elements. It is subdivided into the conscience; where people internalise rules and morals learnt and the ego-ideal; a person’s ideal image of themselves. The Superego combines visions of ethics and morals that have been learnt, into a moral code. Freud believed that these elements, combined with childhood experiences, shape people. Neither of the approaches acknowledge

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