The Transformation Of A Polypeptide Chain

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6) Translation describes the process in which a polypeptide chain is assembled by ribosomes from amino acid. A ribosome receives amino acids from inbound tRNA molecules and attaches them to the emergent polypeptide of the ribosome. The tRNA contains a 3 character sequence known as an anticodon that acts to describe the incoming amino acid, the initiating codon attaches and reads the incoming message and then distributes the amino acid to build upon the polypeptide chain (Nelson Education, page 310). Making use of analogy, the tRNA is like a semi-truck transporting dangerous goods, the anticodon is like the hazardous materials identification sticker, the codon interprets the anticodon’s identification sticker and safely facilitates the drop off of the amino acids into ribosome warehouse, where its contents can then be added to the production of the polypeptide. Initiation, elongation, and termination are the three phases of translation, although it is important to note that the initiation phase has 3 processes of its own that allow elongation and termination to properly occur. The first phase of initiation forms a complex between the initiator methionine-tRNA with smaller subunits of the ribosome, which then binds and moves with the 5’ cap of the mRNA and seeks out the first AUG codon in a process known as scanning (Nelson Education, page 310). The methionine-tRNA’s anticodon recognizes the first AUG codon, which is known as the start codon, which causes the remaining
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