The Transformation of Terrorism Essay

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Terrorism like any other political concepts has encountered various definitions by different scholars and organizations. It has no precise or broadly accepted definition, but to put it in a description way, it would be simply stating terrorism as “a violence or the threat of violence calculated to create an atmosphere of fear and alarm – in a word, to terrorize- and thereby bring about some social or political change” (Rapoport, 2002). Furthermore, the term of terrorism has been defined by the U.S. Department of Defense, which is defined as “ the calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally…show more content…
However, over the past half century, its meaning has been changed to the use of violence by ‘small groups’ to accomplish a political change (Baylis et al, 2008:372). Thus, it can be argued that the main reason of facing challenge to define the term Terrorism is perhaps because the meaning has changed so often in the past two hundred years. The following waves (dynamic period) will explain the history of terrorism to be more familiar with the term Terrorism. First Wave: Anarchist Wave. A Doctrine Creation? The anarchist initiated the first wave, and also they were the first experience of international terrorism in history, which began in 1880s and stayed for almost about 40 years. Their primary strategy was campaigns assassinations against the prominent officials. In the beginning, it was a political violence wave that inspired by the ideas of anarchist, and later was marked as “anarchist terrorism” (Kegley, 2003:38). They initiated their activities by traditional revolutionaries and spreading pamphlets and books so that uprising will be resulted in, but then no longer could this process produce huge uprisings. Later, they realized that this way will not be adequately influential “idle word spillers!” a “new form of communication” was necessary to be heard and command respect. “Propaganda by the Deed” was the new form to spread their ideas that
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