The Types Of Parental Involvement Essay

1277 WordsOct 25, 20156 Pages
Types of Parental Involvement Collective research focusing on family-school partnerships provide an extensive examination of parent involvement. Smith et al., (2011) referred to parent involvement as school, family, and community partnerships for the purpose of shared expectations, responsibilities, interests, and correlating influences of family, school, and community. Epstein’s (2008) framework of parent involvement approached parent involvement typologies from an institutional perspective; the framework for this literature review was conducted with a parental perspective that may positively affect academic achievement among students in 6th – 12th grades attending high poverty, rural schools. An explanation of Epstein’s six categories of parent involvement follows: Type 1- parenting. Parenting refers to the basic levels of support for safety, nutrition, health, and housing necessary for preparing children for success at school with continuous supervision and discipline to positively guide and direct children (Epstein, 2008). Type 2- community. Community refers to school-to-home and home-to-school communication that may include newsletters, phone calls, e-mails, and parent-teacher conferences. Parents should actively and effectively communicate with the school regarding the needs and desires of the child and the classroom teacher (Young et al., 2013). Type 3- volunteering. Volunteering is defined as the involvement by an individual that supports school goals,
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