The Use Of Adars And Other Forms Of Rna Editing And Their Potential For Revolutionize Biomarker Development

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Introduction Transposable elements (TEs) such as Arthrobacter luteus (Alu) sequences make up approximately 20% of the human DNA genome. The repeated DNA sequences were once thought to be “junk” for decades after its discovery in the 1940s, however, recent data suggest that these sequences cause codon alteration and splice site relocation. Ultimately these events change the human genome. The transposable elements are believed to have risen from retrotransposition and constant RNA editing over evolution (Kim 2013). The primary mechanism for retrotransposition is caused by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs). ADAR reactivity and potency will enable scientists to track small RNA and gene interference activities. The retrotransposition of RNA into common introns serve as indicators of sites of cancer initiation, progression, and therapeutic effects. The influx in the concentration and frequency of production Alu sequences trigger sequence mutation, generating different protein isomers, leading to cancer (Crews 2015). This Review analyzes current findings of the application of ADARs and other forms of RNA editing and their potential to revolutionize biomarker development. The future of personalized therapeutic drugs and transplant medicine is in the RNA fingerprinting and the regulation of RNA editing activities. This can be done through induction of pluripotent stem cells (isPSCs) and other stem cell applications (Germanguz 2014). Extensive research in ADARs
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