The Use Of Indigos And Its Effects On The Environment

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Plagiarism approximately 14% in 1 Sources Sources found: all sources→ Introduction Recently, Natural organic dyes like indigo and indigo carmine are widely imported extensively in many industrial issues like textiles, printing, dying, and food [1]. Indigos Family are characterized by their high stability that arises from inter/intramolecular hydrogen bonding. The electronic and vibronic spectra of indigos are strongly influenced by π-domains intermo-lecular interactions [2]. Also, Indigos are well known of their high photochromicty which enrich their potential applications in photonic, storage, and spintronic devices [3]. Indigo carmine (IC), or 5,5′-indigodisulfonic acid sodium salt, is an organic salt derived from indigo by sulfonation, which renders the compound soluble in water. It is approved for use as a food colorant in the U.S and E.U. It has the E number E132. Indigo carmine is primarily employed as a pH indicator. It is blue at pH 11.4 and yellow at 13.0. Also, it is a redox indicator [4-6]. Indigo Carmine (IC) has a chemical formula of C16H8N2Na2O8S2, Molar mass (466.36 g/mol), and melting point (>300 °C). Moreover, Its other uses include indicating dissolved ozone through the conversion to isatin-5-sulfonic acid [7] and detecting superoxide, an important distinction in cell physiology [8] and being used as a dye in the manufacturing of capsules, and in obstetrics. Besides, the indigo carmine-based dye is used to detect
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