Another common remediation technique is stabilization or solidification which aims to alter the contaminants into a less soluble or mobile form (Wuana and Okieimen, 2011; Mulligan, Yong, and Gibbs, 2001; United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1991). In both methods water and a site-specific chemical solution is mixed into the soil to either alter its physical - make it less soluble - or chemical - reduce mobility - properties to make it less likely that the contaminants will move into other locations or be inhaled (Wuana and Okieimen, 2011; Mulligan, Yong, and Gibbs, 2001). Chemical treatment can also fall under the umbrella term of stabilization. Chemical treatment is add chemical solutions to the soil to detoxify the soil and can be used as a pre-treatment for other techniques such as solidification (Wuana and Okieimen, 2011; Mulligan, Yong, and Gibbs, 2001). These techniques are typically preferred due to lower costs but other physical elements of the soil, such as boulders, can make mixing the soil difficult and the process can volatilize and release volatile compounds (Mulligan, Yong, and Gibbs, 2001; United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1991). Mobility of contaminants can also be reduced by using the technique of vitrification through the process of heating up the soil (Wuana and Okieimen, 2011; United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1991). This method results
In some parts of the world, human waste is being used as agricultural fertilizer and it is known as biosolids. We have biosolids due to the wastewater treatment process. There are many advantages and disadvantages to the use of biosolids, however, I believe the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. Biosolids create job opportunities, promote farming, is free and is a cost effective of disposal. Using biosolids can cause odours in the area and may affect health as well. Although biosolids can cause odour problems, farmers see it as a free source of fertilizer. It helps produce ample crops. Creating biosolids is a form of recycling which prevents humans from dumping it in landfills. Biosolids have been
Mostly, wastewaters are usually perilous and unhealthy for human beings, aquatic plants and animals in addition to responsible for the deterioration of environment so it should be treated earlier to its disposal into the aquatic medium and land surfaces. After secondary treatment of domestic and agro-industrial polluted water still discharges large amounts of phosphorus and nitrogen. Such increased percentage of nutrients leads to eutrophication of lakes, rivers, ponds and seas which also leads to augmentation of algal bloom (Lau et al., 1997; Trepanier et al., 2002) and throwing away of wastewaters produces a steady threat to fading of natural resources of fresh water on worldwide (Montaigne and Essick, 2002). Under the extreme nutrients in the wastewater, such as
1) The remedy chosen must attain a degree of cleanup that assures the protection of human health and environment. 2) The hazardous substances that will remain after the cleanup, they must meet the applicable and/or relevant and appropriate requirements under federal and state law (ARARs). 3) The remedy chosen must utilize permanent solutions and alternative treatment technologies or resource recovery technologies to the maximum extent applicable. 4) There must be cost effective response, taking into consideration total long-and short-term costs of the actions. And 5) It must be in accordance with the NCP to a practicable
The cleanup is a three-phase plan, estimated to remove more than 99% of the PAH mass from the area, which has begun and will hopefully undo the previous generations of damage. Phase one is building a box to contain the contamination. Upon completion of the first phase, there will be a double steel-walled barricade surrounding contaminated sediment. Phase two involves of dredging the polluted deposits from the adjacent areas and placing them within the enclosure. The final phase of the project encompasses removing the water from the suppression area and placing a waterproof cap on the facility, which is anticipated to have a 200 year life span, to seal in the chemicals.
Fruitvale was a perfect town. There was a nice creek (Strawberry Creek) that dogs and children could play in and a very good diner that families could eat out at. Fruitvale was a mini fairy-tale land, until they hit reality. Fruitvale was recently contaminated by a No-Bug Pesticide that farmers had been using to get rid of the bugs eating their crops. Twelve wells were tested and the No-Bug Pesticide had not contaminated the Fruitvale Municipal Water Well yet. After one year, we tested all of the wells again to see how far the contaminant has spread. We have found that Fruitvale has approximately three years to get Fruitvale de-contaminated. We want to keep the cost at a minimum and all of the Fruitvale residents safe. To meet these goals, we hypothesize that bioremediation would be the most efficient way to accomplish the following task of making Fruitvale a safe
ioremediation refers to the use of organisms, particularly microorganisms, to transform or degrade a contaminant to make it harmless (Antizar-Ladislao 2010). One well- characterized example is the bioremediation of the Exxon Valdez oil spill off the Alaska coast; the treatment has largely eliminated pollutants and wastes along hundreds of miles of coastline (Atlas and Hazen 2011). Currently, bioremediation is regarded as a cost-effective remediation technology potentially appropriate for large polluted areas, such as contaminated water and soil. Its potential safety and efficiency will certainly accelerate further development of the
This issue also effects the economy adversely. The cost to clean up groundwater contamination can vary wildly depending on the scope and severity of the contamination, but regardless of the cost it usually
In the process of drilling, some radioactive materials may be exposed to the environment. This has a direct effect on the genetic composition of the living organisms from the miniature microbial to the human being, notwithstanding all plants (Resnikoff & Marvin, 2012.
The objective of sewage treatment is to produce a disposable effluent without causing harm to the surrounding environment and prevent pollution.
Air stripping removes contaminants by pumping contaminated water and evaporating the bad chemicals. However, it can take up to a year to have any effect on cleaning the water (Safewater). Activated carbon filtration bring pollutants through its system and collects them, but it needs to be changed frequently, have the possibility of taking a long time to work, and are very expensive (Safewater). Bioremediation is using microorganism to digest contaminants, but again has the possibility of taking a long time, yet is very inexpensive (Safewater). Phytoremediation involves using plants and trees to remove contaminants with their roots and is all natural, but it takes a very long time and the various plants or trees that are introduced can have negative effects on the ecosystems (Safewater). Wetlands and algae is similar to phytoremediation and is already used in wetland habitats for the same purpose of pollution removal. Lastly, chemical oxidation uses oxidants to change harmful chemicals into less harmful chemicals in a semi-timely manner, but it is expensive. Comparatively, Asiatic clams are easy to collect due to their prominence in many bodies of water from past human transport and easy to
As long as humans have been on the earth disposal of sewage as been an ongoing fight. In the Middle Ages sewage was just disposed of on the streets. Gutters were lined with feces which intern would mix with the water supplies and create diseases and provided substances for rodents and ticks that spread the black plague killing one-third of Europe. It wasn’t until the 19th century a correlation was made between contaminated water and disease which leads to the sewage system. From there the ideas grew and different methods came about such as a septic system. A septic system is a type of underground well that receives human sanitary waste through three stages septic tank distribution box and absorption field. In the septic tank human sewage is
In this essay the advantages and limitations of bioremediation, biostimulation, and biofermentation with regard to environmental factors will be discussed and evaluated. Ship pollution is a huge source of ocean pollution, the most devastating effect of which is oil spills ("Causes and Effects of Ocean Pollution”). Ship contamination is a gigantic wellspring of sea contamination, the most crushing impact of which is oil Spills. Unrefined petroleum goes on for a considerable length of time in the ocean and is amazingly lethal to marine life, regularly choking out marine creatures to death once it ensnares them. Raw Petroleum spills are extremely hard to clean up, when it is separated it is there to remain. What 's more, numerous boats lose a huge number of boxes every year because of tempests, crises, and mischances. This results in noise pollution, algae, and ballast water.
The inorganic metals that often plague brownfields include arsenic, cadmium, zinc, nickel and copper. However, the bioavailability of other problematic metals such as lead and chromium are very low and require more advanced resources and strategies in order to be extracted. In addition to these toxic metals, it has been suggested that phytoextraction techniques can be used to remove radionuclides that exist in sites with mixed wastes. Radionuclide refers to any element that emits radiation and that can cause cancer through drinking water that it contaminates. In addition to the environmental and health concerns that brownfields pose, there are also many sociological impacts associated with them.
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF MASTER OF SCIENCE (ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY AND POLLUTION CONTROL)