The Various Types And Their Applications

1081 Words Dec 1st, 2015 5 Pages
Student name: Shard Singh Manhaini
Instructor and Section number: Sharmila Shakya 631A

Superacids
The various types, and their applications in the field of chemistry

Background information
The earliest definition of an acid came from a Swedish chemist named Arrhenius, who defined an acid as a substance that produces hydrogen ions, which are in fact hydronium ions (H3O+), when dissolved in water, and a base, the complementaries of acids, as a substance that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) in water. Definitions from other scientists such as Brønsted-Lowry expanded on this range and defined acids as proton donors and bases as proton acceptors, with the most expansive definition coming from G.N. Lewis, who defined acids as electron pair acceptors and bases as electron pair donors. With Lewis’s definition, compounds such as BF3 and AlF3, along with all cations like Cu2+, Fe2+, Na+ could be classified as acids, while compounds like NH3 and CN-, and all anions like Cl-, Br- could be classified as bases, since only an exchange of electrons was required for them to be classified successfully.
It is important to note the relationships between acids and bases, more specifically, conjugate acids and conjugate bases. When a molecule of H2O dissociates to form a H+ cation and an OH- anion, the H+ becomes the conjugate acid and OH- the conjugate base. This reaction occurs spontaneously in both directions and can be written as follows:
H2O H+ + OH-
The hydrogen ion in this case doesn’t…
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