The Wedding Cake Model of the Criminal Jusice System
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Myth v. Reality
Many people form opinions about the criminal justices system from the media. But how true are these images of justice?
Developing the criminal justice system
Introduction--London Metropolitan Police was the first police agency and was developed in 1829. The first police agencies in the United States were in Boston (1838), New York (1844); and Philadelphia (1854). Criminal justice system was first recognized in 1919, by the Chicago crime commission.
The modern era of justice
Modern era of justice can be traced to a series of research projects begun in the 1950 under the sponsorship of the American Bar Foundation.
Federal involvement in criminal justice
President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and…show more content… The criminal justice assembly line
Herbert Packer sees each stage of criminal justice process as a decision point through which cases flow. Most criminals go undetected. If an offender is arrested, very few go to trial, get convicted and sentenced to prison.
The informal criminal justice system
Introduction: While most people consider the system as an adversarial process, many cases are settled in an informal pattern of cooperation between the major actors in the justice process. (The prosecutor, defense attorney, judge, and other court personnel.)
The “wedding cake” model of justice--Samuel Walker describes the informal criminal justice process as a four-layer cake.
Layer I involves celebrated cases (e.g. Lindsay Lohan and O.J. Simpson). Usually these cases receive the full array of criminal justice procedures
Layer II involves serious felonies (e.g. rape, robbery, burglary). Here these offenders often receive a full jury trial and if convicted, usually a prison sentence.
Layer III involves less serious felonies, offenses committed by young or first time offenders, or involves offenders known to one another. These cases are usually dealt with plea bargain, reduction in charges or probation.
Layer IV involves misdemeanors (e.g. shoplifting, public drunkenness, minor assault). This is the bottom layer of the “cake” and the biggest. (Millions of case) Few defendants exercise their full