The World 's Most Important Pollinators For Agricultural Purposes

958 WordsMay 15, 20174 Pages
Bees are the world 's most important pollinators for agricultural purposes and for the conservation of natural habitats such as tropical rainforests and deserts (1). Many reproductive cycles in various plants depend on bees. But there has been alarming decreases in honeybee populations over the last 25 years (2). This is due to many factors, including bacterial diseases. There are six main bacterial diseases of bees that contribute to bee death and hive losses outlined in the table below. The most important is American Foulbrood Disease (AFD). The current method to treat AFD is to periodically spray the hives with antibiotics such as tetracycline. Historically when American Foulbrood was identified in a hive it was controlled by burning…show more content…
At the time of publication field tests were underway for tylosin and lincomycin. The study was published in 2000, and as of October 2005 tylosin was approved by the FDA for commercial use in the form of three derivative products. In March 2012 lincomycin hydrochloride was approved as well (7). Though rifampicin is definitively the most effective antibiotic against AFB/EFB it main use is against tuberculosis in humans therefore it will not be approved for agricultural use. American foulbrood and other bee diseases seriously decrease commercial yield for beekeepers around the world, to prevent this from happening widespread use of OTC began in the 50s to increase bee survivorship. Studies have suggested that the use of antibiotics disturbs the microbiome of the gut and facilitates the proliferation of pathogens (8). Gut microbiota are interdependent on each other and therefore susceptible to small changes that result in dysbiosis. A recent study shows that dysbiosis promotes pathogenic behaviour from opportunistic organisms already present in the gut (9). The findings of Raymann, Shaffer, and Moran reveal that tetracycline resulted in substantial changes in the core species of microbiota in the honeybee gut. The bees treated with antibiotics showed decreased survivorship compared the untreated bees. Elevated levels of non-core bacteria Serratia and Halomohadacae were found within the treated bees. Serratia is a pathogen of humans and animals as well as
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