The Crusades hold a place in the canon of Western history as valiant wars against the infidel in the East, motivated by an unparalleled pious zeal. Whilst revisions to this history have considered more mundane and ordinary motives, such as a want for land or an attempt to reinforce the Peace of God movement, there is something to be said of the religious motivations of the crusaders. The words ‘conquest’ and ‘conversion’ seem ideologically charged – with conquest being what is done by temporal rulers to physical land and people, and conversion being what is done to the spiritual self, by someone who does not have anything material to gain from the action. However, it can be argued that these lines can be blurred; I wish to present the case of conquest being religiously charged, and the idea that any subsequent conversion is of little importance. By examining the geographical targets of various crusaders, I will conclude that they were more interested in conquest than conversion: but this was not necessarily for earthly reasons alone.
The Pope had all of the power and that led to mass amounts of people going to war for the Pope. In document 4 by the Islamic leader, Saladin, he states that his people should try to retake Jerusalem to get back their holy land and to please God. The people are trying to please their gods and to give their homage to their god. That would show a religious view for the Crusades and their brethren. Document 5 by the Jewish chronicler, Solomon bar Samson, shows that there was a religious aspect to the Crusades, mind it be extremism. The crusaders would see a pack of Jews on the way to the Holy Land and they would give the Jews two choices: 1. they could kill them to avenge the death of Jesus Christ or 2. They could incorporate them into their faith and acknowledge the offspring of promiscuity. Document 7, an excerpt from “In Praise of the New Knighthood” by St. Bernard of Clairvaux, tells of the two-fold war that was being fought by the Knights Templar and the Knights Hospitallers. It was a normal killing people war, and it was a spiritual war. You are protected by the armor of faith and an armor of steel. Next, I would have liked a document from Pope Nicholas IV about how the Crusades had to stop. That would have filled in the ending to the story of the Crusades.
Going against modern day religious beliefs, in 1095AD the Christians went to war to claim the holy city of Jerusalem, massacring the Muslims in a bloody attempt to worship their God. Pope Urban II’s speech at Clermont inspired by claims made by the Byzantium Emperor encouraged the Christians to partake in the First Crusade in an attempt to liberate Jerusalem. The religious and economic factors were the most relevant to cause this crusade, with some influence from desired political gain and little from social factors unrelated to religion. The immediate consequences were positive for the Christians and negative for the Muslims, but the First Crusade launched an ongoing conflict between the Christians and Muslims which had positive and negative consequences for both sides. There are a number of relevant modern sources which examine the causes and consequences of the First Crusade, but, while there are many medieval sources, they do not explicitly discuss the causes and consequences of the war. In order to fully comprehend the First Crusade, it is necessary to analyse the religious, economic, and political factors, as well as the short-term, long-term, and modern consequences.
Pope Urban called for the lords and knights who formed society’s military elites. Pope Urban was a good communicator, but what he said was a
The differences The Crusades were a succession of many wars, which “originally” started as a request from Alexius II for aid after a devastating war in the Battle of Mazikert. This war had taken its ravishing toll on the Greeks in the Middle East. The Battle of Mazikert was a result of the expansion and occupancy of two conflicting empires that
On November 27, 1095, Pope Urban II gave a supposedly important speech at the end of a church meeting in Clermont, France. In it he had called upon the nobleness of the Franks, to go to the East and assist their Christian “brothers”, the Byzantines, against the attacks of the Muslim Turks. He also apparently encouraged them to liberate Jerusalem, the most sacred and holy city in Christendom, for the Muslims had ruled it since taking it from the Christian Byzantines in A.D. 638. The Crusades were a series of wars between Christians and others to take back Jerusalem.
he subject of the crusades is still a very controversial topic that spans across various time periods and has religious, social, and political implications. The first crusade started off as a widespread pilgrimage that ended as a military expedition resulting in the recapture of Jerusalem in 1099. The crusades initiated from a call from help from Alexius for the protection of Constantinople and the recovery of Anatolia. For centuries textbooks have repeated with routine regularity, that the immediate cause, of the Crusades was the Turkish conquest of the Near East, which apparently was a very real threat to Christendom, that had to be countered by military action. With this in mind, the primary purpose of this essay is to identify the various reasons that contributed to the start of the first crusade, while disproving the fact that the first Crusade was a response to a military threat. In discovering the true cause of the first crusades it is necessary to examine it from all aspects from the start to the finish.
According to Thomas Aquinas, the During his letter he talks about how the council assembled and how Pope Urban II exhorted all to resume the powers of their faith and arouse in themselves a fierce determination to overcome the machinations of the devil, and to try fully to restore Holy Church, cruelly weakened by the wicked, to its honorable status as of old. He also stated that another tribulation not less but greater than that already mentioned, even of the worst nature, was besetting Christianity from another part of the world. If you allow them to continue much longer they will conquer God’s faithful people much more extensively. Therefore, he urged the people, as heralds of God, to go out and exterminate this vile race from our lands and to aid the Christian inhabitants in time. I believe this connected back to having faith and what caused Christianity to become important during medieval Europe. As God’s people, they came together as one in order to fight for their freedom. They had faith that if God brought them through theirs then they should be able to come together and do the same for their fellow Christians with the guidance of the
Religious spaces, characterized by Thomas Tweed, are “differentiated,” “interrelated,” and “kinetic.” As a sacred city with spiritual significance in three major religions, Jerusalem is depicted thoroughly in the Hebrew Bible and illustrated as one of the spaces Tweed defines. The Bible emphasizes that Jerusalem was chosen by God and honored by Israelites, which differentiates it as a special, singular space; the description of Solomon’s Temple shows that the Holy City was interrelated to economic power and involved in the judgment of civil cases. Moreover, the conquest, development and destruction of Jerusalem illustrate the city as a kinetic space, reflecting the unsettled history of the Iron Age. These characteristics all make Jerusalem a religious and political center from the ancient Near East time to present day, guiding the footsteps of believers around the world.
In the DBQ historical context, it states that “Between the end of the eleventh century and into the thirteenth century, European Christians, at the urging of the church, conducted a series of nine wars that have come to be known as the Crusades. Many people have wondered were the results of the Crusades more positive or negative? The results of the Crusades were more negative because they would massacre communities and empires, and they had very low patience.
L. The main reason the crusades started was to take Jerusalem from the Turks. Before 1087, Christian pilgrims frequently traveled to Jerusalem, “the holy land”. However, according to document 6, “from 1087 onwards, turks stopped christian pilgrims from entering Jerusalem.” Basically, the Turks claimed Jerusalem as their own, and prevented any pilgrimages. Pope Urban II was not happy about this. He called European Christians to war in 1095 to recapture Jerusalem. According to Document 1, he says, “I, or rather, the Lord, beseech you as christ's heralds to publish this everywhere and persuade all people of whatever rank, foot-soldiers and knights, poor and rich….to destroy that vile race from the lands of our friends.” Basically, Pope Urban II is urging the people to fight the Turks, and win back Jerusalem.
In centuries there were nine wars and it was a dark terrifying history of them.This happen in the 11th century when the war happened.For the nine wars that happened, we called them the crusades.The war was between the Christians and Muslims. The crusade was a negative thing for the nine wars they had and they had to kill the Christians and the Muslims. It was the terrible thing for them and a violent war.At first, They had trouble with each other. They don't believe in each other or their religions.There religions were hatred that people are starting to kill each other because of their religious hatred of each other.They were not happy with each other and started to kill Christians or Muslims. It was bad for the crusade for them.Document 1 states that in sentence they were also left a bitter legacy of religious hatred behind them.
While his words, intending to draw in potential soldiers with mentions of being a "race chosen and beloved by God" (Document 1), or by demonizing the enemy by calling the Muslims "an accursed race, a race utterly alienated from God" (Document 1), true aims are uncovered as he continues, swaying from his faithful words. Although he promises eternal life, even more stress in put on his material promises. Jerusalem was the center of not only religion, but trade, as Urban says himself it is "situated at the centre of the world" (Document 1). Even Christian scripture describes it as a land that "floweth with milk and honey" (Document 1), alluding to the trade and resources that come through. The Pope extends on this, calling the Holy Land a "paradise of delights" (Document 1), implying that this land of riches has been seized by some enemy, but the holy land belongs to the Christians, and therefore so do the riches; guaranteeing to his listeners that if they fight they deserve the "imperishable glory of the kingdom of heaven" (Document 1). Left downtrodden and poor by the Dark Ages, promises of power and money have just as a much appeal as promises of eternal life. To escape Lords service, debt, or just pure poverty, the Christians of Europe "simulated a zeal for God" (Document 3) to flee from their problems. Hidden under a false cloak of devotion, the
This, the Speech of Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont as recounted by the Fulcher of Chartres, had captured the call for the first crusade. The goal of bringing peace in Christendom is clearly aimed by setting a warpath towards Jerusalem to unite Christians once again to the holy land. The power in reassuring the future crusaders of absolution of all sins and promised entry into heaven is unmatched during the start of the Crusades.
Chris Shea ENG 360 Professor Mary Anne Nunn 11/17/16 Paper II: Lamentations 4: Monetary Greed and Blindness (Part 2 – DRAFT) When taking simply the literal aspect of chapter 4 of the Book of Lamentations, one would simply believe it to be a ‘doom-and-gloom’ account of a decrepit Jerusalem. However through a closer reading of the text, along with more of an understanding of the literary tactics used by the writer throughout Lamentations, one would ultimately start to draw a better picture of what is going on during the siege and thus achieve a better grasp of what the narrator(s) wants the reader to believe. In other words, there is more of a reason why Jerusalem is in this ‘fallen’ state than a surface reading would present. This reason: Monetary (and materialistic) greed which oppresses the poor and needy is what ‘blinds’ even those who are able to see the clearest. When one’s vision is blinded by greed s/he cannot see the LORD, so He becomes angered.