The nature, incidence and ethical issues of creative accounting

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The nature, incidence and ethical issues of creative accounting 1.1 Introduction Creative accounting is also called “Earnings management” which is known as the manipulation of financial information. The term can be defined in many ways. Initially we define it as 'a process whereby accountants use their knowledge of accounting rules to manipulate the figures reported in the accounts of a business ' (Naser, 1993, p.59). Creative accounting, at root, is the origin of numerous accounting frauds. Many accounting scandal cases (like the scandals in Enron, WorldCom, and other firms) in the past few years had happened with the result of collapse. Most of these scandals were conducted by the senior management of organisations and many victims…show more content…
Therefore, managers or directors mean to depict good performance and position by manipulating figures hence in such way the stakeholders will be shown positive indicators from the financial statements. By this way, investors will more likely to be attracted and given confidence with this superb financial report. This can be achieved by modifying the figures in the statements using the tricks of creative accounting. In addition, how many bonuses directors will receive in a year may base on the percentage of the profit reported (Shafren, 2009). For this reason of their private interest, directors may manipulate financial figures to meet their desire. Lttner, Larcker and Rajan (1997) have the same perspective. They illustrate that when the directors or managers private interest (such as stock options and bonuses) is rely on the performance of the company, they are more likely to use creative accounting to manipulate the figures in order to achieve their favourable results. Another motivation of creative accounting is the positive effect that the income smoothing brings to the valuation of security and reduces the risk for the analyst. “Where management observes a gap between analysts’ expectation and the actual performance of the company and when major capital market transactions are being expected”

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