The 's People, By Jared Diamond 's Guns, Germs, And Steel : The Fates Of Human

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In Chapter 15, “Yali’s People,” of Jared Diamond’s Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies, the author explains that although Native Australians showed a head start with some early technology, they were soon conquered by Europe. Diamond goes on to explain why and how Australia and New Guinea became to be seen as “backward” states. Diamond explains that although there was a rise in population due to the development of agriculture, they were unable to progress as much as Europeans due to biological and geographical factors. Biographical factors in New Guinea included lack of protein from crops, few animals to do labor, and no epidemic diseases to keep away invaders. In Australia, the nomadic, hunter-gatherer lifestyle caused a lack of the need of non-portable goods. In both Australia and New Guinea, the chief geographical factor in retarding the development of the region was the isolation from other societies. This isolation created a lack of new technologies being spread to this region while Europe was more easily able to innovate and trade with other areas. Another factor that Diamond cites is that “Australia is by far the driest, smallest, flattest, most infertile, climatically most unpredictable… continent.” In Chapter 16, “How China Became Chinese,” Diamond explains “all but one of the world’s six most populous nations are melting pots that achieved political unification recently, and that still support hundreds of languages and ethnic groups… The great
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