Theoretical Concepts And Concerns About Performance Management

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The next section pertains the theoretical concepts and concerns about performance management. Its definition, essences and principles also purposes.
2.4. Performance Management
2.4.1. Definition
Many scholars define performance management, as it is aforementioned the concepts itself are ambiguous and being used interchangeably with other term. Some argue that performance management extends beyond the concept of management appraisal or performance related pay of the 1980s, which address how a person should be rewarded after the completion of tasks over a given period (Mupazviriho, 2003 cited in Ohemeng, 2009), however performance management viewed not only on individual or personal appraisal, it is way beyond that, it is related with
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(Lebas, 1995).
Performance can be defined in various perspectives Poister (2003: 12) refers to it as 'the process of directing and controlling employees and work units in an organisation and motivating them to perform at higher levels. '
Management is responsible for achieving results in an efficient way (Hughes 2003: 6). The definition of performance management may be deduced from the definitions of performance and management.

Another definition presented by Ko et al. (2004: 39) is that performance management is the process of establishing strategic objectives and performance targets, designing a programme to achieve the objectives, implementing the programme, monitoring the results and determining whether the objectives and targets have been met, and reflecting the results in decision-making.

Performance management mnrt ARMSTRONG

Performance Management (From thesis PM in UK vs Korea)
Performance management can be considered in two dimensional or level, the individual and organisational level. There is a close relationship between organisational and individual performance, whereas organisational performance relies on individual performance. For this reason, it may be difficult to improve organizational without improving individual performance.
(Although main object of this research is organisational performance management system, aspects of individual performance will be considered where appropriate.)
Since the late 1970s,
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