Theoretical Foundations of Nursing

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THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF NURSING A. ENVIRONMENTAL THEORY “I think one’s feelings waste themselves in words; they ought all to be distilled into actions which bring results.” Florence Nightingale (1860) Florence Nightingale defined Nursing as “the act of utilizing the environment of the patient to assist him in his recovery” (1860/1969), that it involves the nurse's initiative to configure environmental settings appropriate for the gradual restoration of the patient's health, and that external factors associated with the patient's surroundings affect life or biologic and physiologic processes, and his development. Environmental Factors Affecting Health Defined in her environmental theory are the following factors…show more content…
5. Surrogate Role: Helps clients clarify domains of dependence, interdependence, and independence and acts on clients behalf as advocate. 6. Leadership Role: Helps client assume maximum responsibility for meeting treatment goals in a mutually satisfying way. Additional Roles include: 1. Technical expert 2. Consultant 3. Health teacher 4. Tutor 5. Socializing agent 6. Safety agent 7. Manager of environment 8. Mediator 9. Administrator 10.Recorder observer 11.Researcher Definition of the Unique Function of Nursing “The nurse is temporarily the consciousness of the unconscious, the love of life for the suicidal, the leg of the amputee, the eyes of the newly blind, a means of locomotion for the infant, knowledge and confidence for the mother, the mouthpiece for those too weak or withdrawn to speak and so on.” Virginia Henderson (1955) Henderson defined Nursing as “assisting the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or it’s recovery (or to peaceful death) that an individual would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength, will or knowledge”. She conceptualized the 14 Fundamental Needs of humans. These needs are: • Breathing normally • Eating and drinking adequately • Eliminating body wastes • Moving and maintaining desirable position • Sleeping and resting • Selecting suitable clothes •

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