least five aspects, each one associated with one of the cardinal directions and the center. They
Kinetic energy is the energy that a body possesses by virtue of being in motion.
“Force is defined as an object that has the capacity to cause change in motion” (McLester & St.Pierre, 2008,. 93).
Kinetic energy is the energy an object possesses due to its motion. The difference between kinetic energy and potential energy is the kinetic energy is the energy of an object that is already in
1) What is kinetic energy, and how does it differ from potential energy? Kinetic energy is due to motion, while potential energy is due to position
These laws reveal the mechanical properties of the world and these properties laid the foundation for classic mechanics. Furthermore, these properties will always hold true and they coincide with the deterministic theory that the same causes produce the same effects. Ravil Kalmycov, with the advent of the Ring of Determinism, noted these strict laws created by Newton can be generalized to encompass a wide range of phenomena. The laws provided by Newton only encompass inertia which is a mechanical display of internal determining origins. Kalmycov, in order to encompass the diverse displays of this origin, generalized the laws in the following ways:
Chaos theory engages with the certain physical systems, which are extremely sensitive to the changes in initial conditions. The equations describing a system are highly interdependent. Therefore, even a small change in the system can result in a large effect on the later condition of the system. Since it is impossible to measure all the initial parameters exactly, the trajectory of the system’s operation is inherently indeterminate. That is, this theory is represented by the interdependence among constituents of a system and the uncertainty of the possible conditions of its stages of development. In the highly complex interrelatedness and indeterminacy, this cosmos evolves as a self-organizing creation through “the interplay of chance and law.” In that sense, as Ilya Prigogine and Stuart Kauffman hold, our cosmos is in the continuous process of the emergence of complexity and order in nonlinear systems at the edge of chaos. The dissipations and emergences of complexity and order in nonlinear systems go on and on in this cosmos. “Every beginning is a beginning-again.”
There are two types of energy: kinetic energy and potential energy. Kinetic energy is energy possessed due to motion, and potential motion is energy which
This leaves only one possible solution. The world had to be at some point physicalist, which will be used as a tool throughout the rest of this paper.
Similar to Heraclitus, Aristotle finds that everything is in a constant state of flux. For Aristotle flux, or movement, is dependent on something acting on the thing that is being moved, the mover. Thus, in Aristotle’s Physics we are first introduced to the topic of the unmoved mover: that which moves without being moved, also formally known as the Prime mover. Historically this theory has resulted in a monotheistic concept that has been advanced not only by Aristotle, but also thinkers such as Thomas Aquinas. As a primarily cause or mover of all the motion in the universe, the primary mover is a complex that is surrounded by much controversy. This paper analyzes the first mover from a Buddhist point of view. I will first present Aristotle’s claims and then attempt to disprove them from a holistically dependent Buddhist complex. I will then present the Buddhist complex to assert that identifying the first mover or the causation of the first mover is objectively difficult. Aristotle’s Physics, is broken into two main focuses. The first four books raise inquiry onto nature. In contrast books five to eight emphases the treatment of motion. For the sake of this paper we shall focus on the latter.
Aristotle’s understanding of the four causes begins with the assumption that is present in all Greek philosophy, the notion of pre-existing matter. He observed the world around him and noticed that it was in a state of constant motion, a movement from potentiality to
One of the strongest points that Laqueur makes in this text is about the true nature
and this quantity of motion is “the product of its speed and its size” (Descartes, 1644/2012, p.33), but the conception of speed used by Descartes is an scalar rather than considered as a vector like velocity (as modern development shows (Gerald Holton and Stephen G. Brush , 2001, p. 210)), nonetheless Descartes suggests that “the mind does not directly move the external limbs, but simply controls the animal spirits which flow from the heart via the brain into the muscles, and sets up certain motions in them..” (Descartes, 1641/1985, p. 161), and this allow the interaction of substances in Cartesian terms, in other words, according to Descartes, the soul only change the direction of the body, but cannot add motion to the physical bodies; however, this is the problem of the interaction in Cartesian terms: as Dennett explain “any change in the trajectory of any physical entity is an acceleration requiring the expenditure of energy” (Dennett, 1991, p. 35), thus, the Cartesian explanation should violate the laws of physics, in other words as Dennett asks “…where is this energy to come from?” (Dennett, 1990, p.35), and this energy cannot come from a
The theory of the Four Causes refers to an influential Aristotelian principle whereby the causes of movement and/or change are categorized allowing us to have knowledge of our existence and everything around us. Aristotle wrote that "we do not have knowledge of a thing until we have grasped its ‘why’, that is to say, its cause." He provided an account of the operation of various individual substances in the universe. Distinctions were made between things of two sorts: those that are contingent on something else’s movement and those that necessary in their own movement. Aristotle not only suggested a proper description of these but also attempted to answer particular questions such as ‘Why does this event happen?’ and ‘Why is this object as
Other types of energy lie between kinetic and potential energy or are an amalgamation of both types.