Theories of Teaching and Learning Essay

1942 Words 8 Pages
Teaching theories are as much part of the classroom as the student and the teacher. The effect individual theories have on an environment depends how they are incorporated within the classroom in addition to the influence they have had on the curriculum construction. This essay will briefly look at how motivation theory, cognitive and social cognitive theory along with constructivism have impacted on education and the classroom.
“Motivation is the process whereby goal-orientated activity is instigated and sustained” (Schunk, Pintrich & Meece, 2008. As cited in Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, p.284). Motivation comes in many forms and can be divided into two broad categories - extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivators are external
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Abraham Marlow (1970) who is one of the most influential theorists on human motivation stated that humans are motivated by unsatisfied needs, so as basic needs are met they are able to grow and move towards self-actualisation, resulting in individuals who are satisfied and fulfilled (Maslow, 1970). Facilitating a classroom environment which meets Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, enables students to feel a sense of belonging and self worth within their environment, therefore boosting their motivation to do well and helping them become confident learners.
Teachers can develop a classroom environment which incorporates Marlow’s hierarchy and motivation theories by giving students the opportunity to own the classroom. Providing a sense of ownership within the classroom will enable students to feel safe and as though they belong meeting the lower pyramid level of needs. As these needs are met student motivation will increase which builds repour and assists the teacher to encourage motivation towards other tasks. Motivation theory links to other theories such as behaviourism, cognitive and social-cognitive theory to name a couple. Cognitive theory, which is a psychological learning theory, attempts to explain the mental process that a person goes through to understand and develop their knowledge. Purists of cognitive development often scorn behaviourism as it dismisses the complexity of human behaviour. Behaviourism
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