Theory X And Theory Y Summary

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Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y
Douglas McGregor in his 1960 management book he proposed the two motivational theories which is the theory x and theory y and that made his mark on history. This motivational theories help managers perceive employee motivation.
Motivational Theory X
A Theory X manager assumes the following:
• Most do not to work and come up excuses
• Most don’t have high aims with lots of responsibilities and needs someone to spoon fed them
• Not all think out of the box to solve problems in the organizations.
• Not everyone like changes as they are not technologically updated
The Hard Approach and Soft Approach
Under Theory X, management approaches to motivation range from a hard approach to a soft approach.
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McGregor stressed that Theory Y management does not imply a soft approach.
Applying Theory Y Management - Business Implications
In the event Theory Y holds true, an organization can use these principles of scientific management to enhance employee motivation:
• Decentralization and Delegation - If firms decentralize control and reduce the number of levels of management, managers will have more subordinates and consequently will be forced to delegate some responsibility and decision making to them.
• Job Enlargement - Broadening the scope of an employee's job adds variety and choices to satisfy ego needs.
• Participative Management - Consulting employees in the decision making process pushes their creative capacity and provides them with some control over their work environment. Ms Hogan adopted this but she was not aware of some of the employees’ needs to retire in the near future.
• Performance Appraisals - Having the employee set objectives and participate in the process of evaluating how well they were met.
If properly implemented, such an environment would result in a high level of motivation as employees work to satisfy their higher level personal needs through their
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