Essay on Theory of Alienation: Marx and Nietzsche

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Marx’s theory of alienation is concerned primarily with social interaction and production; he believes that we are able to overcome our alienation through human emancipation.
Marx’s theory of alienation is the process by which social organized productive powers are experienced as external or alien forces that dominate the humans that create them. He believes that production is man’s act on nature and on himself. Man’s relationship with nature is his relationship with his tools, or means of production. Man’s relationship with himself is fundamentally his relationship to others. Since production is a social concept to Marx, man’s relationship with other men is the relations of production. Marx’s theory of alienation specifically
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Finally, Marx believes that man is alienated from other workers because he experiences other workers as threats and competitors. In all of these forms of alienation, Marx views alienation as materialist, with labor at the center. Marx believes that his theory of alienation takes three faces: God, the State, and Money. Since Marx believes that emancipation means freedom, human emancipation is “when man has recognized his ‘own powers’ as social powers, and, consequently, no longer separates social power from himself in the shape of political power.” (Marx) In “On the Jewish Question,” Marx expresses the difference between human emancipation and political emancipation. He explicitly says that they are not the same thing for the purpose of establishing political emancipation as the separation of church and state. This separation establishes a secular government where man takes on a dual role being both civil man and religious man. “[P]olitical emancipation is not a form of human emancipation.” Political emancipation is only a step towards human emancipation because within human emancipation, Marx believes that we should completely get rid of religion so that we are truly free and utilizing our social and political powers for social relations. To Marx, to be truly free, we must have the freedom to control our social relations. Like Marx, Nietzsche is a theorist of alienation, but he believes that man is alienated through morality and our progression
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