Mixed research of executive function in autism. Overall, the EF profile in ASD cannot be generalized to all individuals with ASD (Wallace et al., 2016b). In regard to mixed findings of EF profiles in ASD in their review, Wallace et al. (2016b) argue there are recognizable gaps in the current literature in regard to the kinds of people studied. For example, many of the studies have been done on younger children and adolescents (Barnard et al., 2008; Hill, 2004b). This leaves many sub-populations and age ranges underrepresented at this point, in addition to a void in examining the effects of many cultural factors (Wallace et al., 2016b).
Although children with high-functioning autism have an average or above average IQ, they most often have a difficult time with social interaction. This is due to an inability to predict others’ reactions as well as the inability to understand/perceive the intent or emotional wants and needs of others around them. For this reason, many individuals with
Naoki’s book has successfully been able to help In contradiction to this claim, studies have shown that autism can be strictly categorized as a cognitive disorder (Nolen & Rector, 2015). Again, with that being said, there are cases where such cases of intellectual disabilities may be seen as intertwined with sensory and communication issues. According to the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, autism does highly affect the cognitive process of an individual, and may manifest itself in a range of manners and with respect to the environmental conditions (ASHA, 2018). In children, some may exhibit normal intelligence levels while others may have slightly delayed intellectual development, if not completely stalled, will pick up new knowledge and procedures very slowly as they are continually taught and exposed (Nolen & Rector, 2015). At this stage of identifying the state and stage of each child, their strengths are recorded and they can be taught at a personal level. Some children may exhibit a high auditory memory while others may be strong in visual skills and understanding. Most of them if not all, have their unique pattern of
Autism is a developmental disorder, which is characterized by a dyad of difficulties in a) communication and social interaction and b) restricted interests and imagination (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Individuals on the Autism Spectrum might find it challenging to understand what other people think or what the reasons for their behaviours are, as their ‘theory of mind’ may not be well developed (Schuwerk, Vuori & Sodian, 2015). It is possible that this is why they might behave in socially inappropriate ways, being unable to differentiate between different contexts, while they might also find it difficult to make friends. Moreover, it is likely that they are fond of routines, repetition and structure (Carnahan, Musti-Rao, & Bailey, 2009), as they might be nervous with unknown, new situations. In addition, some of them might not do eye contact with other people, whereas some others might not endure to be touched and might have a difficulty developing speech (Jordan, 2005). Individuals on the Autism Spectrum might sometimes be prohibited to initiate conversations and might struggle with finding different ways to play and behave, due to the possible deficit of imagination, which in some cases might result in them having a narrow sphere of interests. Nevertheless, it should be noted that this group of people is rather heterogeneous, as characteristics of autism may differ from one individual to another (Gwynette, 2013). Another point is that people with Autism
“A wealth of new brain research is lifting the veil” on Autism and revealing its effects on a child`s mind (Cray and Wallis 43). Neuroscientist Eric Courchesne at Children`s Hospital of San Diego revealed that “while children with autism are born with ordinary-size brains, they experience a rapid expansion by age two” (Cray and Wallis 45). Much of this growth is due to the excessive amount of white matter, the nerve fibers that link different areas of the brain. The abundance of white matter has led doctors to believe Autism to be a problem with the way the brain is wired. Marcel Just, director of Carnegie Mellon`s Center for Cognitive Brain Imaging in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, wrote that “there is a lack of synchronization” between the different areas of the brain (Cray and Wallis 46). Local areas of the brain, such as the frontal lobes and the amygdala, are over-connected while links between more distant regions, such as the right and left hemispheres, are poorly connected. One area of the Autistic brain that is enlarged is the amygdala. The amygdala`s job is to assess threats in the environment or in emotional and social behavior. It could be enlarged due to the fact that autistic children maintain a high level of anxiety when having to relate to other people. Another enlarged area of the autistic brain is the hippocampus, an area vital to memory. Doctors believe the hippocampus is enlarged because an autistic child relies on memory to process and interpret situations that most people interpret in a different area of the brain. Researchers have also discovered that autistic brains have chronic inflammation. Amidst these issues Autistic people have learned to adapt and use their brains in unusual ways. For example, they memorize the alphabet in
People understand each other using cognitive skills, an example of this is mindreading. Mindreading abilities also referred to as the theory of mind (ToM) is acknowledging that other people have mental states, such as understanding that others have desires, motives, beliefs and intentions (Hewson, 2015a). This is generally an essential,
Mindreading is defined as the ability to “make sense of other people and to coordinate our behavior with theirs” (Bermudez, 354). Many cognitive scientists believe the theory of mind mechanism (TOMM) is important to mindreading. These scientists contend that autistic individuals suffer from an impairment to this theory of mind module. However, others have argued that theory of mind, which is “the ability to form beliefs about the mental states of others”, is not a modular ability, but instead the result of the interaction of many different cognitive skills. In their paper “Generous or Parsimonious Cognitive Architecture? Cognitive Neuroscience and Theory of Mind,” Philip Gerrans and Valerie E. Stone take this view of theory of mind. I will review this paper and its arguments, then address the response to Gerrans and Stone made by Carl Hildebrand.
Executive function theory: Executive function theory deals with planning, working memory, impulse control, inhibition and mental flexibility. Also, it includes the initiation and monitoring of action. This theory explains some of the autism symptoms. For example, repetitive and restricted behaviour observed in autistic children might be explained due to executive dysfunction. In addition, the poor social interaction could be due to defect in cognitive shifting which is a vital part of executive function.
Autism Spectrum Condition Autism is associated with a range of differences and difficulties typically related to core skills in reciprocal social interaction, communication and imagination
Introduction If we look at the anatomical parts of the brain, we can notice differences in autistic children’s brain. According to Just, Cherkassky, Keller, Kana, and Minshew (2007), when autistic group was compared to control group, the functional connectivity was lower for the autistic participants between frontal and parietal areas, relevant parts of corpus callosum were smaller in cross sectional area and the size of the genu of the corpus callosum was associated with the functional connectivity of frontal-parietal. Applied Behavioral Analysis is one of the most widely used interventions working with children that have autism. ABA intervention is bases of the behavioral therapy that was introduced by B.F.Skinner, a spokesperson for
The theory of mind is a concept that is multidimensional and multidirectional. There are many definitions that exist, but there are some of the key aspects that can be used to create a definition. The theory of mind can be defined as an ability to acknowledge and understand your own personal beliefs, knowledge, ideas, perspectives and various mental states such as emotions and levels of consciousness. A person will use their theory of mind to then apply and understand these aspects that apply to you and your thoughts are different from other people’s, and can thus lead to a sense of empathy and understanding. A lack of theory of mind can create social tension and exclusion if it is not applied well enough for an individual to engage in cultural
According to research a difficulty developing Theory of Mind is central to the social deficits associated with autism (Sivaratnam, Cornish, Gray, Howlin, and Rinehart 2012). Theory of Mind is the ability to infer, understand and predict the beliefs, intentions, emotions of oneself and others. In typically developing children the understanding of intention as an “internal goal-oriented internal state is evident around 4-5 years of age (Sivaratnam, Cornish, Gray, Howlin, and Rinehart 2012). It is often the more subtle aspects of Theory of Mind, such as the ability to recognize complex emotions and facial expressions, and the interpretation of social-emotional cues in naturalistic settings, are where cognitively more able groups of individuals with ASD struggle (Sivaratnam, Cornish, Gray, Howlin, and Rinehart 2012). Those children with ASD that are of low IQ are most likely to struggle with Theory of Mind because they are not fully able to utilize cognitive reasoning to compensate for their social deficits (Sivaratnam, Cornish, Gray, Howlin,
Autism in Toddlers and Infants Introduction What is Autism? Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD / autism) are a group of disorders referred to as "developmental disabilities" and the result for children afflicted with ASD is "significant social, communication and behavioral changes" (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC). In short, children with ASD
How does the Executive dysfunction explain certain behaviours in Autism Spectrum Condition? Abstract Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects 700,000 people in the UK, however, is not wholly understood. The Executive Dysfunction theory tries to explain why Autistic individuals have impairments in behaviours such as planning, flexibility, inhibition, and self-perception. Executive Function (EF) is made up of the various mechanisms such as planning flexibility and inhibition. If there is a deficit in either of these mechanisms, this causes EF dysfunction which could produce impairments in the above behaviours.
The stability of the mind is uncertain in the medical field. Even though researches about how the mind works has helped us developed a better understanding about the human mind and its behavior, they have failed to give us a complete and knowledgeable concrete answer to all the questions of its deep studies. The human mind is still a very abroad subject to medicine. What makes a mind stable and what triggers mental illnesses is a question that will still be unknown to the medical field for more years to come. The understanding of the mind is a quest that has started since the beginning of human civilization and it has not stopped. The mind is an organ of its own, and it develops its own unique style of evolution through time. It is a very small organ that is responsible for the function of the human body. All our functions come from there, the way we speak, think and behave. As all other organs, it also has its own illnesses that for many centuries we have tried to understand. The illness of the mind still has no cure and what science has found only contributes to the temporary solution, but not the cure of the illness. One of the most severe forms of mental illness is Schizophrenia. This illness has tormented people since the beginning of history. Schizophrenia, the illness that is still very mysterious to medicine; the symptoms, the cause, diagnosis, types of schizophrenia and the medication are not the solutions for a lasting illness.