Therapeutic Cloning Process

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The process of cloning can occur over three different ways: gene cloning, reproductive cloning, and therapeutic cloning. Gene cloning is achieved by segregating a strand of DNA from an organism and dividing it into small genes. These genes contain enzymes that cut the bonds between nucleotides after determining the sequence of the DNA. A portion of bacterial plasmids, “small circles of DNA in plasma cells” (University of Nebraska), are then cut and combined with the previously removed DNA. Once these two components are combined, a new combination of DNA will appear. This new product is then placed in bacteria and grows into colonies on a culture dish. The scientist then tests the different “colonies” to find out which contains the gene they were looking for (University of Nebraska).
The remaining processes of cloning, reproductive and therapeutic, begin similarly through a process called nuclear transplantation. Nuclear transplantation involves removing a nucleus of an egg cell, and replacing it with a different nucleus often from an adult body cell. The
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In reproductive cloning, the blastocyst formed in the previous step will then be transferred to a female surrogate which will house the egg until ready to give birth (Simon, Dickey, and Reece 208). The result is a clone of the original animal with no shared DNA from the surrogate.
Therapeutic cloning on the other hand is used to produce embryonic stem cells. The blastocyst as mentioned above, instead of inserting them into a surrogate, are taken and grown in a lab (Simon, Dickey, and Reece 208). The goal of growing the embryonic stem cells is to transform it into a specialized cell. To do this however, scientist have to identify particular conditions that vary depending on the type of cell they want to develop. The cultured stem cell will continued to be modified until fully
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