Thesis Statement For Heart Failure

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DISCUSSION Heart failure, also known as cardiac failure is a terminal stage of heart disease. The mortality rate in patient with heart failure has progressively increasing year by year (5). In Malaysia, the major cause of admission to hospital is mainly due to heart failure with prevalence of 6-10% of total hospital admission (6). Readmission of patient with decompensated heart failure within 30 days is about 25%. Thus, it is crucial to determine and treat the underlying causes and early prevention and intervention is necessary. Heart failure develops when there is an abnormality to the cardiac structure that lead to impairment of ventricular filling and ejection of blood to the body (7). Thus, the cardiac output does not meet the body’s oxygen demand.…show more content…
The role of diuretics in heart failure is to reduce the fluid retention by diuresis (1). Patient should be monitored closely to prevent over diuresis that will subsequently lead to hypotension and renal impairment. Diuretic used is commonly associated with hypokalemia (1). Thus, additional potassium needs to be given concurrent to diuretic treatment (1). Patient’s daily weight must be recorded and aimed for reduction of body weight >4.5 kg in 5 days after treatment (7). Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) is a first line agent in treating heart failure, especially when there is evidence of reduced in ejection fraction <40% as it improve survival rate of patient (1). Patient needs to be advised regarding side effects of the drug which are, dry cough, hypotension, renal insufficiency, hyperkalemia and angioedema. Antihypertensive agents that can be given in patient with heart failure are beta blocker, ACE-I and aldosterone antagonist. If the blood pressure is persistently high despite treatment with beta blocker, ACE-I and ARB, calcium channel blocker such as amlodipine can be added as this drugs has negative inotropic effect

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