Three Study Boxes: Written Corrective Feedback

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Study Box 1

This study investigated how both teachers and ESL students perceive written corrective feedback (WCF), focusing on their perception about the usefulness of different types and amount of WCF as well as their reasons for having such perceptions.

Research questions
1. What amount of WCF do ESL students and teachers think is most useful, and why?
2. What types of WCF do students and teachers think are most useful, and why?
3. What types of errors do students and teachers think should be corrected, and why?
4. Are there differences between students’ and teachers’ preferences and reasons regarding the usefulness of different amounts of WCF, types of WCF, and types of errors to be corrected?

33 adult upper
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2. What are the misfits between EFL teachers' perceptions of written feedback and their real practices in the classroom?

Fifteen teachers and 45 EFL students coming from beginning to advanced level.

Method and/or instruments
The data were obtained by using questionnaires for both the teachers and learners. For the learners, the questionnaires were written in their L1 (Persian) to avoid potential difficulties in comprehending the questions. The teachers were also given an error correction task using the advanced students’ actual writing and an interview followed afterwards.

Statistical tools
Reliability analysis with Cronbach's Alpha.

It was found that there were four areas where the learners’ and the teachers’ perception differ: (1) teachers' manners of marking, where most of the teachers believed they comprehensively corrected students’ errors, but the learners’ believed that they were always given selective corrections; (2) the use of error codes, where most of the teachers did not perceived using error codes useful and therefore avoided using them, while the majority of the students felt that they needed such codings and thought they would benefit from them; (3) awareness of error selection principle, where most of the teachers agreed that their students were aware about their error selection principle, but, again, most of the students did not think so; (4) effectiveness of teachers’ error feedback practices, where the majority
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