Lyme disease has emerged as the most common vector borne infectious disease in the United States and has presented a growing challenge to public health officials over the past three decades. The infection represents a significant disease burden to the population of the United States with nearly 30,000 new cases diagnosed per year and an estimated additional 270,000 annual incident cases that go unreported. The disease results from a bacterial infection with the spirochete bacteria B. burgdorferi. This bacterial agent is transmitted to humans from the bite of a tick and is most commonly associated Ixodes species blacklegged ticks. These ticks represent the largest genus of the family Ixodidae and mainly inhabit temperate forest or grassland
Your chances of acquiring Lyme disease can be greatly affected by where you live or travel to. Many outdoor activities put you at risk. Since deer ticks feed on mice and white-tailed deer, they are most commonly found in heavily wooded areas. Another risk factor of Lyme disease is having exposed skin. Since ticks attach easily to bare skin, being exposed in wooded or grassy areas will increase your risk. If you are bitten by a tick, the final chance of prevention is to remove the tick quickly and properly. In most cases, to infect it’s host, a tick must remain attached to the skin for at least thirty-six hours. If you safely remove the tick
The bite of an infected tick is the primary mode of transmission to humans, or other vertebrate hosts, though it is also possible, but extremely rare for infection to result from exposure to crushed tick tissues, fluids, or feces. (http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/rmsf/Natural_Hx.htm)
“Lyme disease got its name from where it was first discovered in Lyme, Connecticut in 1975” (healthychildren.org). “Since then there has been thousands of cases reported of the disease. The ticks live in low and high seasonal temperatures and high humidity” (healthychildren.org). Lyme Disease most common to occur in the Northeast, North-central states, or West Coast. On behalf of the Northeast, I can tell you that ticks are everywhere in this region. They like to live in tall grasses and woody areas. “The small insects more than often latch onto the foot or lower leg and crawl up the body, and travel up the body with a destination of the head. On their normal hosts, ticks also usually crawl up; they want to blood feed around the
Chances of being bitten by a nymph (young deer tick) are greater during mid May to mid August. Generally, they are the size of poppy seeds. Adult ticks are greater during March to mid May and mid August to November. Once it gets below freezing many of the ticks won’t survive. If a tick is found on the body you must remove it immediately. In most cases the tick must be attached for 36 hours or more before the bacteria can be transmitted (“Lyme Disease (tick borne borreliosis, Lyme arthritis)”). Contrary to popular belief, Lyme disease doesn’t spread from one person to
What became known as Texas tick fever probably arrived in North America sometime in the seventeenth century carried by cattle brought by Spanish colonists from the West Indies. It was transmitted by the cattle tick which required 200 or more frost free days per year for survival. Therefore, its spatial extent was the southern states. Initially, southerners were not terribly concerned about the disease since cattle was rarely a primary economic investment in the southern United States. Antebellum Texas was an exception since it dominated the national cattle industry. By the 1850s farmers in states such as Missouri were turning back cattle drives from Texas for fear of infecting their herds. In some instances there were violent confrontations, assaulting and even killing some of the cowboys. Eventually northern states intervened to protect their herds, instituting quarantine laws against southern cattle. In 1892 the federal government delineated a quarantine line that followed the northern border of permanent fever infestation. The accompanying regulations stated that cattle could only be moved to northern markets between
First, Lyme disease is a tick borne illness, meaning it spreads through tick bites. The disease is only spread through a limited species of ticks, the utmost popular being the deer tick. Lyme disease can affect humans and dogs, as well as other animals. Although, only spread through a few species the disease is very harmful to one’s health. In 2009, it was found that “the C.D.C reported 38,000 cases, which is three times more than in 1991” (Specter 25). The process of the tick is rather simple and sudden. First, the ticks attach to their host and spread an antihistamine on the surface to numb the area to prevent the victim from feeling the bite. Thereafter they emit a glue resembling
Lymes disease is present here in Nova Scotia and has also affected humans and dogs in different parts of North America. It is one of the most common tick-causing symptoms however only 5-10% of dogs are affected showing different forms of the disease. Living in Lunenburg & Queens County (NS), there seems to be a higher population of deer ticks, as well as other parts of the province. The deer ticks are the primary carrier of the disease. A tick carrying the bacteria (B.burgdorferi) that can cause Lyme disease can transmit it to a dog after filling itself with blood, which takes at least 48 hours. Even if it is attached for 48 hours, the dog may not contract the disease.
Ticks, they are most significant vectors of infectious diseases in the United States. These arachnids can host a scary medley of infectious bacterium, and they are increasing at an alarming rate with one CDC graph showing their numbers have almost tripled since 1995 (Lyme Stats). Some point to greater awareness, other point to climate change, while we don’t know exactly why their reach is growing we do know we have to be wary of the diseases they carry. While not all ticks are hosts, ticks carrying the Borrelia bacteria known for causing Lyme disease present a massive public health risk. Lyme is one most under researched Infectious diseases with the CDC estimating that somewhere between 300,000 and 3,000,000 people are infected annual.
First, one uses tweezer and grasps the tick as close to the skin as possible. Second, pull upward and make sure the entire tick is removed including the mouth part. Third, thoroughly clean the bitten area with rubbing alcohol. If a rash develops after a few days, seek medical help for proper diagnoses. Patients are treated with antibiotics. The three presenters listed that they orally took doxycycline and amoxicillin. The first question one should ask themselves when finding a tick is how long the tick has been attached since a person is not treated with antibiotics if it has not been attached for more than three days. In order to prevent lyme disease, one must be aware of his or her surroundings. When spending time outdoors, cover exposed skin by wearing light-colored, long pants, sleeves, and socks. One must use insect spray if spending a long time in high grass, leaves, or bushes. Also, always check pets for ticks when they come inside the home. If a tick is found attached to your clothes, place the clothes in the dryer for an
Lyme disease has been a problem for those living in and around the New England area for the last few decades. Unfortunately, researchers have just discovered that the deer ticks are expanding their reach, with a surge over 320 percent. The ticks are slowly branching out into the connecting counties and states. It is believed that they are branching out due to climate change.
Lyme disease is a bacterial infection caused by a spirochete, a corkscrew-shaped bacterium called Borrelia burgodorferi. Lyme disease is primarily transmitted through tick bites, there has been no reported cases of human to human transfer of Lyme disease. Ixodes ticks, also known as deer ticks are the typical carriers of the Lyme disease. The ticks can most primarily be found in wooded and grassy areas. Due to the fact these ticks are only the size of a poppy seed they usually go undetected when they bite. Once the tick is attached to the skin it can feed for several days; the longer the tick is attached the more likely Lyme disease will be transmitted. Lyme disease can affect any organ of the body including the brain, nervous system, muscles, joints, and even the heart. In some cases, if a pregnant woman develops Lyme disease it can pass on to the unborn child and in some cases stillbirth has occurred due to the disease.
In the United States, the genuine name of the bacterium is Borrelia burgdorferi. In Europe, the bacteria Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii also cause Lyme disease. Symptoms include bull’s eye rash and neurological symptoms. Lyme disease is transmitted by these ticks when they nip the skin, which allows the bacterium to taint the body. Lyme disease is a tick-borne disease (Tortora, Funke & Case, 2004). The single vector for Lyme disease in the United States is the deer tick called Ixodes scapularis. These ticks are transporters of the Lyme disease bacterium in their abdomens. A two-step system when testing blood for confirmation of antibodies against the Lyme disease bacteria is recommendation. The two steps of Lyme disease testing are aimed to be done together. Doxycycline or amoxicillin are the antibiotics typically used for oral treatment. Patients with specific neurological or cardiac forms of illness may need intravenous treatment with drugs such as ceftriaxone or penicillin. Nursing interventions include protecting the patient from sensory overload and redirect patient as