The literature review of this article focuses on Title IX itself, as well as statistical numbers that provide the reader knowledge about the impact it has had. Title IX is a comprehensive federal law that has removed many barriers that once prevented people, on the basis of sex, from participating in educational opportunities and careers of their choice (Bower & Hums, 2013). Acosta and Carpenter (2012) reported that the number of female athletes playing college sports has risen from 16,000 in 1968 to over 200,000 in 2012. Although the increased number of opportunities has provided women the chance to participate in the sport, the percentage of women coaching women’s teams has decline over time from 90% in 1972 to 42.9% in 2012 (Acosta & Carpenter, 2012). Alongside coaching is the lack of women working in intercollegiate administration. In 1972, the percentage of female athletic directors overseeing women’s programs was 90%, Today, the percentage of female athletic directors is 20.3%, a small increase from 2010
Before Title IX was signed by President Nixon on June 23 and went into effect on July 1 of 1972, both women and young girls were excluded from many activities that men and young boys were allowed to do. Since the passing of Title IX, women have excelled in all sports tremendously. This essay will argue that because of Title IX, women can now participate in various activities and sports. Title IX of Educational Amendments prohibits sex discrimination in any educational program or activity receiving any type of financial aid, and because of this enactment made by Congress in 1972, women have left their mark on sports history.
The idea of equity in society particularly in athletics has been a major topic in athletics for many years. However, in spite of the long and storied history of the fight for equity in athletics we still see a lot of misunderstanding especially involving one particular law. This law is Title IX which has a number of awful misconceptions associated with it even from female athletes themselves. One misconception that is very popular especially among the critics of Title IX is the idea that “Title IX exists to force to schools to drop men’s sport’s”(Kane, pg. 3). This is something that was reinforced by an report authored by Dr. Mary Jo Kane who is a Professor at the University of Minnesota regarding the 40th anniversary of Title IX. Dr. Kane indicated that she opens her sport sociology class discussions on Title IX by asking her class what they know about this subject. Dr. Kane indicated in her report that Title IX “remains a mystery to the vast majority of her students, both male and female” (Kane, pg. 3). Dr. Kane goes on to point out the misconception mentioned above is commonly said by her students including her female D1 scholarship athletes who are the ones that have benefitted most from this law. Overall Title IX is a great law even if it is a law that takes a lot of bad press although this is largely due to the actions or in some cases lack thereof from the leaders who reside in college athletics.
In 1972 the Congress passed an Educational Amendment stating that all federally funded schools should not discriminate anybody by gender from playing sports. (History of Title IX. 2011, September 13). The title 9 was made to give equality to all participants who are playing for a school. Mainly for girls who were discriminated from playing sports. U.S Secretary of Education, Rod Paige said “Without a doubt, Title IX has opened the doors of opportunity for generations of women and girls to compete, to achieve, and to pursue their American Dreams. This Administration is committed to building on those successes.” (United States. Department of Education; United States. Secretary of Education 's Commission on Opportunity in Athletics, 2003, 2) Even though this law has been passed and has ensure equality to a lot of woman out there, there is still a handful of high schools that break this law. Torrey Pines High School had a women 's basketball team that went undefeated in the year of 2013. But it still showed that the boys games had more fundings than the girls team. The bleachers would be close to full every game, even though the boys team at this high school didn’t have a great season like the women 's team for this school. According to this
Gender has always been a starting point for much of the judgement in our society whether we realize it or not, and it’s exactly the causes of one of the many controversies that there is today. Title IX, the law passed to help overcome prejudice and grant girls the same opportunities as boys, is getting not only the credit it deserves but much backlash to counter it. The main purpose of this law was originally to give girls the opportunity to play the same sports as boys were able to, and thanks to the law girls are now given these opportunities to play sports in addition to also give many transgender students more rights within the schools than ever before. Even with all these steps forward in society, there are still those who believe
Imagine being a female athlete before 1972, you practice playing basketball everyday just like the boys do, but they have multiple scholarship opportunities to go to college where as females do not. They tell you to be a cheerleader or work in the kitchen and stay at home, but in your heart you are a competitor and have a passion for sports. This is a feeling that many females felt before Title IX; was explicated to give female’s gender equality in sports. Title IX has positively affected women’s sports over the years, but can negatively impact men’s teams, especially within the collegiate field. Title IX has changed budgeting and participation numbers between males and females, while opening up several opportunities for women. I am going to inform you how Title IX affects females and males in collegiate and high school sports, the history about Title IX, facts and statistics, how it has positively changed the way women participate in sports, and what it has to do with race and minorities.
In 1972 Congress passed the Educational Amendments. One section of this law, Title IX, prohibits discrimination against girls and women in federally funded education, including athletic programs. As a result of Title IX, women and girls have benefited from more participation opportunities and more equitable facilities. Women who were under 10 when Title IX passed have much higher sports participation rates than women who grew up before Title IX. Fifty-five percent of the "post-Title IX" generation participated in high school sports, compared to 36% of the "pre-Title IX" generation.35 Because of Title IX, more women have received athletic scholarships and thus the opportunity for higher education than would have
In 1972 Congress passed the Educational Amendments. One section of this law, Title IX prohibits discrimination against girls and women in federally funded education, including in athletic programs. Since its arrival, in regards to athletics, there have been arguments for and against the many aspects pertaining to this law. Title IX has had a large impact on high school and college athletics in the attempt to give females an equal opportunity, but the means by which they are achieving this goal is an ongoing debate.
Over two decades have passed since the enactment of Title IX, a federal law prohibiting sex discrimination in federally funded education, including athletics. As a result of Title IX, women and girls have benefited from more athletic participation opportunities and more equitable facilities. Because of Title IX, more women have received athletic scholarships and thus opportunities for higher education that some may not have been able to afford otherwise. In addition, because of Title IX the salaries of coaches for women's teams have increased. Despite the obstacles women face in athletics, many women have led and are leading the way to gender equity.
Throughout history, according to the laws of almost every country, males have been the dominate sex. In almost every sector of life, the law has granted men more rights and privileges, whether it be property rights or the right to vote. However, in the United States, ever since women’s suffrage, all women’s rights have been increasing steadily. One privilege that men have had in the past, active and supported participation in intercollegiate sports, has also been opened up to women through Title IX, part of an amendment to the 1964 Civil Rights Act. Although Title IX does not solely target sports, its effect on college sports across the United States
Even when Title IX was first introduced, it was not embraced with open arms and immediately implemented into society. Scholarships and funding toward women’s sports were a huge controversy, as many men’s athletic teams, mostly football, found themselves having to give up funding toward their program to compensate for the new women’s teams being formed. In fact, schools, men’s collegiate sport teams, and the NCAA challenged Title IX countless times for it’s discrimination against men and it’s push for equal federal funding for both men and women. Many male coaches, athletic directors, and particularly members of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) feared that women athletes would siphon off too much of their funds. So The NCAA had actively and publically opposed Title IX, trying first to exclude athletics from it altogether in 1975, and then working to exempt revenue producing sports like football.
Throughout the 20th century, one of the most controversial topics is the equality of men and women. From the workplace to the athletic fields, many activists have made it their life’s work in order to see women able to have the same opportunities as their male counterparts. In some cases, there has been legal action made in order to facilitate these reforms and ensure that they will be enforced. In most cases, these laws have accomplished exactly what they have set out to do. The nineteenth amendment allowed for the suffrage of women, and Executive Order 11246 prevents any employer from discriminating anybody in the hiring process and in employment, to include equal opportunity as far as advancement and salary are concerned. Both of these have
Title IX has given women opportunities for playing any sport they desire. If a man can play a sport, Title IX will declare that a woman may also play it. Without Title IX, many women would not be able to participate in sports that have famous women athletes today. Such sports include, Soccer (which the Women's USA Soccer team dominated during the World Cup, in 2015), Wrestling, Baseball, or even Hockey. A woman can do anything a man can do, and Title IX supports that.
As stated previously, women have a much lower interest in competing in athletics, statistically speaking. For example, high schools must also obey the regulations put into play by Title IX by offering the same number of sports teams for each gender, thus giving high school students equal opportunities to participate in athletics. However, even though both male and females are offered the same opportunities, 1.4 million fewer females choose to compete in high school sports than males. Based on recent reports from the 2010-11 academic year from the state high school athletic associations from all 50 states, sports participation among genders is approximately 4.5 million boys, or 60% of total participation, as compared to approximately 3.1 million girls, or only 40% of total participation.(Toporek) Although this statistic clearly
Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 states, “No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.” The impact of Title IX on the lives of so many girls is immeasurable. It has created opportunities for women, where opportunities did not use to exist. Unfortunately, it has not completely eradicated sexism. Women in many professional sports, which are also played by