Autistic spectrum condition is a lifelong disability which affects how an individual communicates and relates to, other people. The understanding of autism has greatly improved since the 1940s when it was identified and one thing that we are aware of is that there is no cure however, there are many things that can be done to support people with autism. There are a large number of symptoms that are in relation to autism, such as a delay in speech development, not responding when their name is called and despite being able to hear, being intolerant of others entering their personal space. In addition to these, there are behavioural symptoms such as insisting on a familiar routine and becoming very anxious or upset if this is disrupted or changed, they will sometime talk at people rather than having a two-way conversation and a failure to understand or implement social rules.
The hallmarks of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) involve marked deficits in social interaction as well as engagement in repetitive behaviors and language difficulties (Leblanc, Richardson, & Warnie, 2005). Although autism can have a profound impact on the capabilities and functioning of the individual, emerging research indicates that applied behavioral analysis (ABA) can be an effective tool for addressing many of the deficits that children with ASD face (Boutot & Myles, 2016). In fact, emerging research indicates that when ABA is utilized for the treatment of young children with ASD many of the challenges faced by this group can be ameliorated (Boutot & Myles, 2016). With these issues in mind the current investigation considers the seven elements of ABA identified by Baer, Wolf, and Risley (1968) in their seminal article on applied behavioral analysis and their application to individuals with ASD. Through a critical review of the seven elements of ABA in relation to ASD it will be possible to illustrate how this approach can be effective for improving outcomes for individuals diagnosed with autism.
This case study consists of a first grade student, Adam, who displays minimal social interaction and exhibits patterns of disruptive behavior in the form of tantrums. Although he has deficits in communication and social skills, Adam excels in completing certain tasks that are designed for upper level students. After reviewing the symptoms and the reactions he exhibits, I believe the student has Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). At this time, I would choose treatment options that implement behavior modification techniques. I believe this is the correct form of treatment due to his behaviors not being severe enough to be treated with medication. He is not exhibiting out of control conduct and displays some social skills. Behavior therapy teaches the person that through certain techniques they can minimize their symptoms. Side effects from medication can have serious effects on a child’s developing brain, “’Autistic children have a broader range of side effects than do non-autistic individuals,’ Dr. Elliott says. ‘I often think of them as having a “raw brain” effect. It's like having sunburn; things that normally wouldn't affect you, like a pat on the back, do. You have to be more careful getting started’” (Arky, 2012). These medications can have long-term side effects if not taken or monitored correctly. Based on the condition of the patient, I believe behavioral modification techniques would be the most effective treatment in this case.
The "Intensive Early Intervention Program for Children with Autism" is a program funded by the province of Ontario. It is used to teach/treat young children who have been identified as having an autistic spectrum disorder. Intensive Behavioural Intervention (IBI) services are provided to children, aged 2 to 5 years, who must meet specific program requirements. The program was designed taking into consideration the central tenets of Applied Behavioural Analysis (ABA), which is a widely recognized and accepted method for teaching functional skills to children with autism.
Individuals with autism demonstrate delays or deficits in social interaction and behaviours. Autism is apparent from early childhood, but can emerge in early adulthood. It is associated with a wide range of possible causes, but genetic factors are the main causes. Children with autism have impairments in cognition, language delays, and lack of or poor social interactions. Lack of communication may force these children to adopt repetitive behaviours such as self-inflicted injuries and violence. The teaching process requires interventions that address the repetitive behaviours, skill development, and play
Autism spectrum disorder has become the most common neurological and developmental disorder diagnosed in children today. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012) estimate that 1 out of every 88 American children have been properly diagnosed. There is no known cure for autism, and the inconsistencies of the symptoms of autism in each case make it difficult to target a particular set of effective treatments. However some behavior management therapies, specifically physical therapy, may help to significantly control the unwanted symptoms in young children with autism spectrum disorder.
The Ontario government is focused on providing effective early interventions for young children with autism (Perry, n.d.). Throughout the years, a substantial amount of research has been done regarding the neuroplasticity and the effectiveness of early intervention in young children (Perry, n.d.). The results of this research have given professionals a greater understanding for a new program directed to young children- which is designed and implemented for children with a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder and some diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder- Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) are also eligible (Perry, n.d.). In 1999, $19 million was funded by the Ontario government to be invested in the services of Intensive Behaviour Intervention (IBI). This specific program is developed for children up to and including the age of 5 years old (Perry, n.d.).
Tommy’s mom is very informative on his past issues and present concerns she has. His father is a little out of the loop and may be in denial over his son having an impairment like High Functioning Autism. Tommy is a child with some aggressive behaviors toward others and sometimes does not transition well to new tasks. He is isolated, does not share and likes to keep to himself. He has had instances of aggressive behavior towards the other children in his class.
When it comes to children with autism, it takes the right approach to engage them in physical activities. Setting rules and boundaries is the first step to engagement in physical activities. This may help the child learn appropriate behavior, whether they know what it is appropriate and what’s not. According to research, autistic children rely on structure to function properly, and the reason why is because it eliminates confusion and increases the understanding the difference between right and wrong (Raiford, 2017). It also eliminates stress by being precise on what tasks are they supposed to do rather than letting them figure it out on their own. Since autistic children don’t like change, preparing them for it in advance can help reduce tantrums
This is why it is important that parents become trained in ABA. However, it is important that parents do not think that one approach will solve any child 's autism difficulties. The idea of using a “cookbook recipe” to fix their child is something that must be thrown out the window and techniques that encourage parents to become educated about the broadness of autism should be used. This includes learning how their child functions and ways to help design a ABA for their child rather than basing it off of statistics (Dillenburger et al.,2004).
The work of Liu, King, and Bearman (2011) report that autism ""¦is a developmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, often accompanied by stereotypical or repetitive behaviors." (p.1387) Reported as well is that substantial resources are spent providing treatment to children in families who have been diagnosed with autism and specifically stated is that the resources needed are "significantly more than for other children neuropsychiatric and developmental disorders." (Liu, King and Bearman, 2010, p. 1387)
The use of physical activity has been shown to be beneficial to children with a multitude of developmental and physical impairments. Particularly, children with autism tend
The prevalence rate of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has risen drastically in the last 10-15 years. In 2008 the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that an estimated 1 in 150 individuals had been diagnosed with ASD, the 2014 report now estimates that 1 in 68 individuals have been diagnosed with ASD, roughly a 120% increase (CDC 2007 & 2014). This rising trend necessitates a greater number of programs and intervention strategies to improve the quality of life of individuals with ASD. One of the primary professions responsible for implementing and designing these new strategies and programs are occupational therapy (OT) practitioners. Occupational therapists are responsible for providing services that increase performance and participation of individuals with ASD. It is essential that occupational therapists utilize interventions proven to be efficacious and are continually improving and redesigning their program strategies (AOTA Ethics and IDEA). There is a wide range of interventions utilized by occupational therapists when treating individuals with ASD due to the various manifestations of deficits and positive symptoms that can occur.
The DSM 5 defines autism spectrum disorder as a persistent deficit in social communication and interaction across various areas. The deficits occur in the areas of social and emotional functioning, non-verbal communicative behaviors, and fostering relationships. The DSM 5 also includes repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities as factors to consider when seeking to understand if a child has autism. The child can become fixated on specific objects, strongly adhere to schedules or ritualized patterns. When patterns are broken, the child has a difficult time transitioning to a new schedule or pattern of existence. Additionally, the child may be hyper or hyperactivity to various sensory aspects of the environment. As denoted
In addition, this case allows for readers to see how psychosocial treatment programs can be modified to account for social and behavioral deficits associated with autism. The downside to this case study, like all case studies, is the lack of generalization. As a single case study, it is important to note that Jerry’s initial presentation and subsequent treatment response cannot be generalized to all youth with ASD and comorbid anxiety. It is possible that Jerry and his family presented factors contributing to successful treatment that other families do not