The first Act of Supremacy was introduced by Henry VIII in 1534 during his rule of England. Later, when Elizabeth I came to the throne, the second Act of Supremacy was introduced to bring back the reforms that Mary had abolished. Both of these acts have many similarities but also some fundamental differences that helped indicate the type of ruler each monarch would be. Before discussing the differences it is important to first understand how the Act of Supremacy came about.
The Supremacy of the monarchy is the monarchical state of being superior more than all others in power which refers to the Bristish Law’s called Magna Carta, common law and precedent. The Magna Carta is a charter that King John of England was forced to seal and sign the Magna Carta, otherwise he would be considered shameful and unjust. Magna Carta is still one of the most influential documents that is a part of our law which exhibits the idea of liberation of citizens. King Henry II developed a system of travelling judges (circuit judges) who would visit villages, resolve conflicts, heard cases and created new laws which is now considered common law. According to the textbook, common law has three meanings. It refers to the law that comes from Britain, it means a law that is common is all… law that applies to all subjects in the land and it also means law that is based on the best decision of judges. Common law is the law that is the same for every individual and should be obeyed by everyone equally and ethically. Common law is also seen as a precedent because the past decisions of the judges were recorded and were used for alike cases or conflicts. In short, the Supremacy of The Monarchy developed from the Magna Carta, common law, court system and precedent that helped our Canadian law develop to make it
However, Protestantism continued to spread to areas in Europe. Other types of churches were made that was similar to Lutherism but different in ways of their own. For example, the Calvinists believed that no matter what people do, God has already decided their fate. One of the churches of Protestantism is the Anglican church. It was made by King Henry VIII, after the pope refused annulment from his wife. In the Act of Supremacy, English Parliament in 1534, Parliament, influenced by the monarchy and declared, “...that the king, our sovereign lord, his heir and successors, kings of this realm, shall be taken, accepted and reputed the only supreme head in earth of the Church of England, called Anglicans
Elizabeth I was the daughter of King Henry VII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn. She ¿˘claimed the throne of England at the of age 25 through the years (1558-1603).Elizabeth I marked one of the highest milestones in english monarch history. She became the first queen in european history to rule a state/country without a male companion. However because this was new idea and it didn't follow the bible directly, it stirred up many controversial opinions amongst the people of England during the 16th-17th century. Near the beginning of her reign a majority of people had the idea that a women should not hold such high power; However as time went on many individuals changed their minds about the idea of a female heir .
Imagine a world were only one person had the sovereignty of a nation through his bloodline and was not chosen by the people of the nation. This form of government is known as absolute monarchism which was practiced since the beginning of the middle ages till this day (Pope Francis, Vatican City). When it comes to a monarchy, it is composed of an individual(s) (king or queen) who reigns till his death and has a divine right appointed by God to be the ruler. The divine right was a doctrine that plead in favor of absolute monarchism, which means that the power of the rulers came by God’s authority and could not be downsized by any earthly organization such as the government or even the parliament. The Queen Elizabeth I, ‘The Virgin Queen’, also
Therefore, the king/queen only had to answer to God, not the people. Since the ruler was chosen by God it was considered axiomatic that the monarch has absolute power, after all God has great power so His earthly representative does as well (Document 7, James I of England 1609). Furthermore, because God chose the sovereign, disobeying the king was considered the same as disobeying God (Document 4, The Ideal State 1697 by Jean Domat). Of course, because the monarchs had such great power and were God’s chosen people they had to govern per God’s will, which was absolute justice. (Document 5, On Social Order and Absolute Monarchy by Jean Domat). As important this concept was in maintaining absolute monarchs, the reason that the Divine Right to Rule was so effective is because absolute monarchies primarily occurred in Catholic countries, where the monarch could gain the partnership of the Roman Catholic Church and thus win power over the
Elizabeth I’s ability to imprison allowed her to control parliamentary outcomes to some degree, in 1559 she imprisoned Bishops of Lincoln and Winchester, leading to a loss of votes and the passing of the Act of Uniformity. This is a key example of how Elizabeth used her royal power to manage parliament, rid of awkward members and secure her desired outcome. The queen used her power to prorogue efficiently, such as during the push for the 1559 Religious Settlement. This gave Elizabeth time to plan and listen to the advice Cecil; allowing her to be careful and shrewd decisions when managing parliament. Elizabeth argued her status as a monarch to control Parliament’s demands. In 1556, the Commons petitioned Elizabeth to marry and name a successor, in which she stated “I am your anointed Queen, I will never be...constrained to do anything”; this effectively controlled Parliament and successfully forbade further discussion. Elizabeth’s success was further strengthened by her personal tactics in controlling parliament.
Britain’s government had kings, queens, laws, and punishments for outlaws. Elizabeth was the queen of England from 1558 to 1603. She became a queen after Mary I and Philip 47. James I son of Mary I ruled from 1603 to 1625 after the death of Elizabeth. Charles I ruled after James I. Charles ruled from 1625 to 1649. The laws were that you can’t kill, you can’t steal, you can’t assault someone, you
Rulers of European countries during the 17th century had almost unlimited autonomy over their respective countries. They were the head of government in all respects, and all decisions were eventually made by them. However, along with this autonomy came responsibility in the form of the people. If the decisions of these rulers did not improve the country, the possibility existed that their power would be either curbed or taken away by the people. As ruler of England in the early 17th century, Charles Stuart believed strongly in absolute power and a king’s divine right to rule. He believed that a king was given his power by God and therefore had no reason to answer to the people. The Parliament in England at the time
England’s lengthy history of hereditary monarchs and abusive absolutists has led to the system of constitutionalism in 17th century English government. The encouragement of these absolutism practices triggered the need to search for a new way to govern. The reigns of the Stuart monarchy led to the shift from absolutism to constitutionalism during 17th century England. After witnessing the success of Louis XIV's of France establishment of absolutism, England would soon see that James I, and his son Charles I, will fail at establishing absolutism in England and see a constitutional government established.
At the beginning of her reign, she made the Church of England the official religion of England and she fashioned her court after that of her fathers. For a woman during that era, Elizabeth was a very daring and smart ruler. For example, she secretly encouraged sailors such as Francis Drake to make raids on Spanish shipping and challenge their naval superiority. When she was a little girl, she was well educated and was able to speak several languages, including French, Spanish, and Latin. In addition, throughout Elizabeth's reign, there was always the threat of hostilities in some form or another. Elizabeth kept the peace between rival leaders of different religions by dominating her court so she could keep the balance of power.2 She was smart enough to come up with a plan which kept the church at bay with their questions of marriage.3 She also calmed the Spanish and the French by entertaining suitors of each respective country; Philip II of Spain and Duke of Anjou of France, but she never married either of them and was therefore known as " the Virgin queen".4 Elizabeth was a Protestant queen who was not always on good terms with most Catholic rulers of Europe. Because of that, there were several assassination plots against her so the Catholics could put Mary, Queen of Scots, in her place. During the 1580's, Elizabeth began to bring her full weight onto the catholic rebels. Hundreds of Catholics died at the stake just as the
How did events during Henry VIII’s reign cause for a permanent shift in the religious system of England?
Queen Elizabeth I left a great and lasting impact on the country of England. She became queen at twenty-five years old in 1558 and reigned successfully from November 17, 1558 to March 24, 1603, a total of forty-four years.