Tools of Research

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TOOLS OF RESEARCH * Research Tool – is a specific mechanism or strategy the researcher uses to collect, manipulate, or interpret data. * Research Methodology – is the general approach the researcher takes in carrying out the research project, to some extent, this approach dictates the particular tools that the researcher selects. THE SIX GENERAL TOOLS OF RESEARCH 1. The library and its resources For thousands of years, the library served primarily as a repository of books and manuscripts. It was, for the most part, only a slowly expanding universe of knowledge, one that could be comfortably contained within masonry walls. In the 20th century, the role of the library changed. An explosion of information occurred. Research altered…show more content…
For example, 40° C does not represent a temperature which has twice the heat of 20° C because the zero on the Celsius scale is arbitrary, and does not represent an absence of heat. However, when we consider the metric system for temperature (known as ‘degrees Kelvin’), then there is a true zero (called ‘absolute zero’). Therefore, a measure of 40K (i.e. 40 degrees Kelvin) is twice as hot as 20K. STATISTICAL PROBABILITY OF THE SCALE * Nominal Scale – enables one to determine the mode, the percentage values, or the chi-square. * Ordinal Scale – enables one also to determine the median, percentile rank, and rank correlation. * Interval Scale – enables one also to determine the mean, standard deviation, and product moment correlation. * Ratio Scale – enables one also to determine the geometric mean and percentage variation. * VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF MEASUREMENT Validity – the validity of a measurement instrument is the extent to which the instrument measures what it is supposed to measure. Reliability – is the consistency with which a measuring instrument yields a certain result when the entity being measured hasn’t changed. To apply these concepts to social research, we want to use measurement tools that are both reliable and valid. We want questions that yield consistent responses when asked multiple times - this is reliability. Similarly, we want questions that get accurate responses from respondents - this is validity.

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