Toothpaste Modern Toothpaste

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Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used to clean and maintain the aesthetics and health of teeth. Toothpaste use can promote good oral hygiene: it can aid in the removal of dental plaque and food from the teeth, it can aid in the elimination and/or masking of halitosis, and it can deliver active ingredients such as fluoride or xylitol to prevent tooth and gum disease (gingivitis). In most or all developed countries, usage after each meal is encouraged. Most toothpaste contains chemicals which are toxic when ingested, and is not intended to be swallowed.

* 1 History o 1.1 Early toothpastes o 1.2 The modern toothbrush o 1.3 Tooth powder o 1.4 Modern toothpaste * 2
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Sodium fluoride (NaF) is the most common form; some brands use sodium monofluorophosphate (Na2PO3F). Much of the toothpaste sold in the United States has 1000 to 1100 parts per million fluoride ion from one of these active ingredients, in the UK the fluoride content is often higher, a NaF of 0.32% w/w (1,450 ppm fluoride) is not uncommon. This consistency leads some to conclude that cheap toothpaste is just as good as expensive toothpaste. When the magazine Consumer Reports rated toothpastes in 1998, 30 of the 38 were judged excellent. Application of fluoride also prevents moisture build-up in some surfaces.[citation needed]

Other ingredients are less commonly used, including Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals and calcium phosphate for remineralization,[6] and strontium chloride or potassium nitrate to reduce sensitivity.

[edit] Other ingredients

In addition to fluoride, the other fundamental ingredient in most toothpastes is an abrasive.[citation needed] Studies have shown that abrasives in toothpaste reduce the time needed to remove plaque from the teeth by approximately 50%. Abrasives, like the dental polishing agents used in dentist's offices, also cause a small amount of enamel erosion which is termed "polishing" action. Some brands contain powdered white mica which acts as a mild abrasive, and also adds a cosmetically-pleasing glittery shimmer to the paste. Many may contain frustules of dead

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