“The activity of thinking prefigures, prepares for, and lets us practice the freedom of mind we require to exercise discerning judgment while living among people who differ from us.” Elizabeth Kamarck Minnich stated in the passage Teaching Thinking Moral and Political Considerations. As part of the top ten in my graduating class, the process of structured thinking has worked in my favor, as it has set me to take classes others wouldn’t usually take; but in no circumstances have I thought that I was smarter than my other classmates. The structured thinking set upon us shows the capability of how well one listens and follows. Listening to what and how the work should be done is a major key in this cycle, and anyone is capable to do it. The second step in the other hand differs, as many tend to
Vertical thinking is thinking with mental operations that move in a straight line up and down between higher and lower level concepts. Where lateral thinking is looking in alternate directions to define and interpret a problem and thus a solution.
Metacognition refers to “ thinking about what you are thinking”; the audiences are the ones you want to persuade or to educate. In outcome one, the writer needs to form a metacognition of the use of language in different writing contexts, which requires the writer has a clear understanding of who the audience is so that various aspects of writing will be formed accordingly. Keeping whom the audiences is an important aspect of writing because it determines how the arguments would be delivered in each piece of writing. Hence, the writer should consider the audiences’ needs in the background information provided, the frequency of terminology used, the tone, the style, the word choice and the content. More importantly, having a specific audience
Reflection and Interpretation • How what you observed relates to reading/ classroom discussion? o When supporting children that need more challenge, it is important to focus on asking them questions that allow them to think about a topic on a deeper level. When working with T, it was evident he knew what was being asked of him on this worksheet. I know I challenged him because he really had to think about what I was asking him, and give him a nudge in the right direction. According to Reys, Lindquist, Lambdin, and Smith (2015), “People who are good problem solvers are generally good at thinking about their own thinking—that is, they are good at metacognition. As a teacher, I need to remember to find ways to allow my students to think about their thinking in order to challenge them. I need to scaffold my students into asking themselves their own questions after they complete a problem.
Metacognition is basically when you are aware and understand you own thought roccessIn the movie Princes bride, there is one scene where two characters named Westley and Vizzini and the ne character Vizzini shows a really great example of being metacognitive. In this scene, the one character Westley challenges Vizzini to a “Battle of wits”. When Vizzini agrees Westley takes out two wine glasses both full of wine and tell Vizzini that he had just put poison powder into one of the wine glasses and the challenge is for Vizzini to drink from one of the wine glasses that he believes doesn’t have poison in it. The only problem is there is a little bit of poison in both wine glasses and Westley thought ahead because he knew that he was immune to the
Metacognition is not easily distinguishable from other various neural activities. Fleming describes a study by Shimamura, Squire and Janowsky, where they were able to “identify brain mechanisms that govern metacognition” in subjects with lesions to the frontal lobe (3). This study proved for the first time that “metacognition is an independent function of the brain” (Fleming 4). Although a human brain is an inherently complex and interconnected mechanism, scientists were able to connect metacognitive thinking to a specific area of the brain. Moreover, they were able to find experimental proof for their findings, isolating metacognitive abilities from the other mental processes.
Metacognition is the driving force for Children to succeed by encouraging cognition self-reflection also known as effective discipline techniques. The result in cognition self-reflection helps children understand their mistake also learn from their mistake by keeping their emotion in check. Tough empathizes, "You go over the mistake you made –or the mistakes you keep making – and get to the bottom of why you made them."(115). This idea is significant because children can look over what they did wrong continuously furthermore by analyzing the situation of what went wrong until they figuring out what they did wrong, therefore, to avoid that same mistake yet again. Tough illustrate "take responsibility for their mistakes and learn from them without obsessing over them or beating themselves up for them."(115). The point is children overcome from their mistake moreover learn from it without being upset or giving themselves a difficult time for doing the wrong fixation. Children who can look deeply at their own mistake and reflect on that mistake by analyzing what they could have done differently to avoid making the same mistake. Self-reflection is the motivating force of metacognition.
Top-down and Bottom-up processing Top-down processing as defined by the book is a stimulus processing that is determined by expectations, memory and knowledge rather than directly by the stimulus (Eysenck, 2012). A basic understanding of this is when I find myself waking-up in the middle of the night and feeling dehydrated so I will begin to make my way through my house to get water, but I will never turn on lights while making my way to the kitchen because in my mind I have a full understanding of how my house is laid-out allowing me to recall how to maneuver though my home without hitting anything. I think that top-down processing is the process of learning, and that as we create repetition and gain the ability to recall information with ease, and not requiring us to constantly think about each process of something. I use top-down process by just repeating things and I can use this with learning new things everyday by having a constant
Metacognition is the ability to understand the learning process of not only yourself, but the ones around you. Having this understanding allows you to convey information in a much more effective manner. Understanding the way I learn is important to the way I can approach problems and solutions. These issues and answers develop in many forms. Much like how an artist develops a process of completing a master piece, I can develop the tools to understand and learn in any situation, job, or
Metacognition is the act of thinking about one’s own thought process. My perspective towards writing has without a doubt evolved over the past years of my life. Writing has never really been bothersome for me throughout my life and I believe that I’m an average writer. The
In this video Professor, Stephen Chew explains metacognition, and how it affects and can help us as college level students. He explains it very simply with ten simple tips how we can use metacognition to our advantage to help us study and not only memorize the material, but truly learn
Per the class lecture, top-down effect takes place when our attention is on specific details that we look for (Psych 240 lecture, 9/12/16). Thus, the other details in the environment, even though perceived by our sensory systems, are not strengthened by the top-down processing and so we overlook this perception. This concept was applied to the study’s methodology. If the hypothesis was proven, then it would become obvious that we actively perceive both the distractors and the target. Both signals are perceived by bottom-up processing and the factor that is a determinant in this study is whether both the target and distractor received the top-down processing or just the target letter received the top-down processing. The common thought has been that the target letter is the only one that receives top-down since participants know that they only need to focus on the middle letter. There was an expectation and knowledge of what to look for. Yet, during the experiment, when the target letters and the distractors look similar, the participants took a few milliseconds longer to analyze both before determining what was the target letter. The trend was obvious once all participants went through over 200 trials of
The Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI), established by Schraw and Dennison (1994) was used to measure metacognitive awareness of the participants. It contains 52 items which measures different aspects of metacognition. Items of MAI are in two sets: "Knowledge of Cognition" and "Regulation of Cognition". Seventeen objects of the MAI measure
There are said to be six stages of critical thinking, the unreflective, challenged, beginning, practicing, advanced, and accomplished thinker. The unreflective thinker is unable to asses their thinking skills while in the second stage of challenged thinkers, they are becoming aware and figuring out problems. The beginning thinker is similar to concrete thinking, which contains no depth, it regards to the facts and thinking in the periphery. At the fourth stage, the practicing thinker is developing the knowledge for systematic practice, while the advanced thinker now has good habits and can actively analyze information. Lastly, the accomplished thinker can access their intuitiveness and take a position on things in everyday life(Edler, Paul).
2. Literature review 2.1. Metacognition Generally Metacognition is defined as “how individual monitor and control their cognitive process” (Young & Fry, 2008). Metacognition refers to being able to reflect upon, understand, and control one’s learning. Previous accounts of metacognition have differentiated