Traditional and Alternative Teaching

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Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND It is well known that children learn in various ways and have their own individual styles and strategies. Some may enjoy group works, others individual works. Some may prefer teacher instructions with worksheets and firm direction, rather than self-generated research projects. There are numerous ways children learn, but how does the surrounding environment, affects a child’s learning ability and influence the learning strategies that employ? Our society these days are divided into two different ways of thinking on the education. Some may believe that alternative methods are better than the traditional methods of teaching but yet these two methods are both a successful ways.
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With the view of functionalist, Skinner (1953) developed his theory of learning on the concept of operantconditioning . He offer the organism operates in the environment doing whatever it does. According to Skinner , while operating, the organisms encounters stimuli to which he referred as reinforcing stimuli.

Cognitive Leaning Theory A founding father of Cognitive Learning Theory, GagnE (1985) contended that it is more realistic to assume that there are different kinds of learning, arranged in a hierarchy, with one sortbeing the prerequisite for the next. For example, solving an algebraic problem depends on understanding algebraic function, which depends on knowing basic mathematical skills and computations, which depends on recognizing simple numbers and symbols. For GagnE, simple conditioning only provided the basis for more advance kind of learning. He built on the behaviorist model by adding processing or cognitive component to Skinners’ model.

Conceptual Framework For a better understanding of the study, the conceptual framework is presented in the paradigm below which consist of independent and dependent variables.

Figure 1: Paradigm of the Study The research paradigm of the study in figure 1 has the dependent variables which consist of the subjects, materials and classrooms. While the independent variables consist of the alternative teaching method and traditional
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