Traffic in downtown Austin, Texas is becoming a sever issue and is continuing to become slower and more congested every day. Austin ranks 4th on a list of U.S. cities with the least efficient roadways, and with its remarkable growth rate, the issue can only get worse. After reading numerous articles based on opinions and statements from local city planners and engineers, the best way to see an improvement in the traffic issue is to increase the amount of public transportation in the Austin area. The increase of public transportation would provide fast travel time and would help reduce the amount of money, commuters and locals use on gas by a substantial amount per year. Though many may argue the that we have enough public transportation already, reducing the number of personal vehicles on the road would decrease the amount of bumper to bumper traffic experienced on a daily basis, as well as increase the options for those commuting to the city every day. there are many possible solutions, such as widening the highways or even building them underground, these solutions however are not the most economically correct and productive way to relieve traffic downtown.
During this section of my blog you would be able to view all the different types of typical services provided by networks and the purpose of each where I discuss the advantages and disadvantages of them all.
The internet layer is built up of four core protocols: IP, IGMP, ICMP and ARP. Internet protocol (IP) is responsible for routing, IP addressing and breakdown/reassembly of data packets, address resolution protocol (ARP) is responsible for mapping an IP address to a device on the local network, internet control message protocol (ICMP) provides diagnostic information and error reports on lost packets, internet group management protocol (IGMP) controls who receives IP datagrams in a single transmission. The transport layer is built up of two core protocols: TCP and UDP. Transmission control protocol (TCP) sequences and acknowledges packets sent and their recovery when lost in transmission allowing the computer to make and maintain network conversations where applications exchange data, defined as a connection-oriented protocol meaning the connection is maintained until the programs has finished exchanging data. User datagram protocol (UDP) This is used to transfer small amounts of data when the use of error correction isn’t needed increasing the speed of the transmission, common in multi-player video games as the user will not need to receive packets of past events in the game so the error correction featured in (TCP) would be
Congestion may occur when the demand exceeds the available resources, like bandwidth, memory and processing capacity of the intermediate devices. Following is an example to indicate how congestion
Riordan Manufacturing is in need of a new network, this plan will develop a network that will benefit the business, the employees and the customers in a manner that will provide all of them with a smooth operating experience as well as to future proof the entire network. The Network will handle all incoming and outgoing traffic for both the employees on the intranet, as well as the customers on the external internet web site. Quality of Service (QoS) will be implemented to assist in data tracking for use of the bandwidth to determine and plan how much bandwidth is needed and to determine where congestion
b)if we are using Circuit Switched method for Above given Application there will be no need of congestion control.where there exist so many links available in network and each link will give good bandwidth.so we dont need any type of Congestion control.
With hub polling; however, one computer starts the poll and passes it to the next computer on the multipoint circuit, which send its message and passes the poll to the next. That computer then passes the poll to the next, and so on, until it reaches the first computer, which restarts the process again. Contention is the opposite of controlled access, which is what polling falls under, where computers wait until the circuit is free and then transmit whenever they have the data to send. Contention is commonly used in Ethernet
14. Using the terminology introduced in this chapter, think about network topologies. Which of these terms lists a network component that acts the most like a policeman directing traffic in an inter-section by directing the bits through the network?
The transport layer: This layer determines how the packets are transported such as the order and what to do if there are errors. The purpose of this layer is to make sure the data be transported correctly. Besides, due to the limitation of physic (maximum IP packet size is 65535bits), the speed of transportation is limited. As a result, this layer needs break big data in to small packets. This can also collect small data into a big packet to reduce unnecessary transmission, which can improve the transmitting speed. Example protocols are TCP, UDP, SCTP.
In order to succeed today, organizations that are competing in global markets are increasing rapidly. The increased use of technologies such as the Internet, intranets, and extranets will definitely revolutionize how businesses will operate and how they will use computers to compete. The Internet and related technologies and applications have changed the ways companies operate their businesses processes and activities. For example, companies can network their offices and share data to be more effective and efficient. However, excessive use of the Internet, intranets, and extranets also create intense