Similarly both trade routes had access to salt. Nevertheless, the Trans-Saharan trade route also was able to obtain gold, ivory, metal ware, textiles, pepper, dates, beads, and leather. Consequently the quantity of goods led to an increase in wealth for Ghana. The Trans-Saharan trade route was able to exchange their luxury goods for pottery, glassware, and textiles from Persia, India, and China. Additionally during the 900’s the kings converted to Islam causing wealthy merchants to also convert. On the other hand, overland trade on the Silk Road produced silk, spices, and precious stones. Meanwhile sea-lanes on the Silk Road were capable of carrying bulkier items such as steel, stone, coral, and building materials. Because China was the only country that had cultivators and weavers with an outstanding knowledge of developing techniques, they were able to produce high-quality silk fabrics in classical
The already existing trade routes of the trans-Saharan, the Silk Road, the Indian Ocean network, and the Mediterranean Sea network continued to help empires, goods, beliefs, ideas, technologies, and people spread to newer and farther cities with trade centers. These cities included Hangzhou, Tenochtitlan, Baghdad, Cahokia, Venice, and Swahili city-states.
During the eighth century throughout the late sixteenth century, one trade route entranced everyone involved from the Mediterranean to the Africa’s. The Trans – Saharan Trade was an important trade route that ran across the Sahara between the Mediterranean countries and West Africa. In the beginning stages of the Trans- Saharan trade many small trade routes were being used throughout the period. this is because travelling across the Sahara before the domestication of the camel was difficult. The Trans-Saharan trade route did more than attract traders. This route was an economical boost for many and also connected the West African people with the Mediterranean people.
Although key elements of the trade between Africa and Eurasia changed during the era of 300-1450, a few factors stayed the same. In 300 C.E., trade routes were primarily between Europe and North Africa. The way that they changed by the time of 1450 was that they expanded southward and westward. By 1450, these trade routes went through West Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, and the Indian Ocean. One factor that stayed the same during this time period was that the northern coast of Africa was always involved in the trade between Africa and the rest of Eurasia.
The Trans-Sahara and Silk Road trading networks from time period 3, were located in the Afro-asia region of the world, with some smaller trade routes that led to outlying european cities such as Constantinople. While both trading routes were important for the spread of religion, goods, and ideas, the Silk Road had more profound effects on the world.
The Byzantine Empire needed the metal to create an economy and many products. The route kept on expanding to be a more traditional trade route of the Silk Road between Europe and the Middle East. The camel caravans and oases were the primary modes of transportation to make it possible for the buyer and seller to communicate about the product and slave. The camels were perfectly suited to the travel through the Sahara from moving for extended periods of time and carrying heavy packages. The transportation also helped cultural exchange between Africans and Arabs. The Trans-Saharan trading enriched the African kingdoms beyond what would have been possible without it.
West Africa has experienced migration, because of the cultural, ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups it contains, and because of the minerals, and goods it can produce. Around the ninth century C.E., in the trans- Saharan route, slave trade became popular. These slaves were used by the Arabs for military service, administration, domestic service, and concubinage. Extensive trade in the region led to urbanization, as well as the introduction of Islam. Muslim Berbers contributed to the expansion of Islam, by controlling the trade routes in Africa, and becoming conduits for economic activities, by the tenth century. During the mid-11th century, cities like Gao and Timbuktu had Muslim scholars traveling the routes, because of the intrusion of the Almoravids, and this resulted in turning these cities into hotspots for study and trade. The eleventh century brought the acceptance of the Islamic culture, and led to conversion of the elites, so they can have legal, political, administrative, cultural, and economic benefits. The Islamic culture did not disrupt indigenous African shamanist and animist beliefs, it united ethnic groups, and led to the development of Islamic states throughout Africa. (Africa, 3000 B.C.-A.D. 1500 / West African Trade /
One of the most prominent effects of the cross cultural interaction was the Afro Eurasian Trade Network which helped increase revenue. The trade routes that were part of this network were the Mediterranean Sea Maritime Trade Route, Indian Ocean Maritime Trade Route, Eurasian Silk Road and the Trans-Saharan Trade Routes. The increase in trade resulted in the emergence of major cities such as Timbuktu, Jenne, Mogadishu, Mombasa and other Swahili city states. Another reason for the flourish of trade was the invention of new technologies such as caravans for traveling and the trading of luxury goods such as silk, cotton and porcelain. The dawn of new kingdoms such as Mali, Songhay and Sudan contributed to this effect as well. The spread of Islam resulted in
Middle Eastern gold and silver purchased pepper, textiles, and gemstones in India. Merchants from the Arab Empire established communities from East Africa to the China coast. Opportunities for trade led to the production of sugar and dates in Mesopotamia and stimulated a slave trade from East Africa to provide labor for the growing and refining of these products. Widespread conversion to Islam among traders in the Indian Ocean underpinned an international maritime culture and also helped to facilitate commercial transactions.
From 120 BCE to the 16th century, trade was a remarkable part of the Eastern Hemisphere. It played a vital role in the kingdoms and city-states that made up all of what the 21st century calls Europe, Asia, and Africa. Trade was critically important in this time period because of the diverse climate that was scattered all across the continent. Due to the climate, every location had different resources that were provided by nature. Without specific resources, specific goods could not be manufactured. Not only that, but since technology was not as advanced as it is now, specific products were not able to exist in areas. The only way to obtain those products was to trade. Two of the many routes that a merchant could use to trade were the Silk Road and the Sea Roads along the Indian Ocean. Of those two roads, the Indian trade route had the most positive impact around the world. It facilitated the trading of mass goods since rather than using animals to transport goods, they used boats. It also provided a type of wind known as Monsoon wind that merchants could benefit from. Finally, the Indian Ocean trade route stretched out at a greater distance than the silk road, which impacted the goods that could be traded. Overall, the Indian Ocean trade route had the best impact in the Eastern Hemisphere and even the world.
In the Arabian peninsula, Islam had started. After Muhammad died, the Muslim community embarked on a series of military conquests that extended their control over much of Eurasia and north Africa. Muslim merchants also became a prominent figure in trade during this time. The Islamic empire extended to the Arabian Peninsula and many areas around it. These places were central in the Mediterranean sea, Indian Ocean, and silk road trade routes. The Muslim merchants became a very big part of trade because of their location at the center of many trade routes from Eurasia to Africa. They were also a prominent part of trade because the camel saddle started to be used frequently in 600 CE. Camels were more equipped to walk through the desert, and so the ability to control them made the Muslims a major part of silk road trade. In addition to this, the Muslim agricultural revolution occurred around 600 CE. This caused more crops like cotton to be cultivated and traded, causing a greater income and virtually more trade between Africa and Eurasia. In the Indian Ocean basin, the Gupta empire had declined and there was no centralized rule in India. However, there were still major trading cities and new technologies caused trade to increase. An example of the new technologies would be the dhows and junks that were used at around 800 CE.
The Crusades and the Mongol invasions greatly affected the trade in the Islamic world, but the Mongols were more open to the idea of trade than the Crusaders. There were many ways the Crusades affected trade. For example, by increasing the demand for Middle Eastern products. This was cause for more production in the Middle East. Also, the Crusades increased the use of money in the Islamic world, and the need for it. Lastly, the Crusades created many new inventions to do with weaponry and war because of trade. This allowed for better chances on the battlefield, and all the new inventions caused the economy to grow because people bought more things as they were now available.
The Trans-Atlantic Trade was a complicated system of commerce between Europe, Africa, and the Americas during the eighteenth century. All three continents had different supplies and demands that were subsequently traded throughout the regions involved. The Trans-Atlantic trade was caused by the increasing demand for luxury items from Europe and Africa, eventually resulting in slavery and cultural diffusion throughout the entire world.