How is memory encoded and what methods can lead to greater recall? There have been many different models suggested for human memory and many different attempts at defining a specific method of encoding that will lead to greater recall. In this experiment subjects are asked to do a semantic task on a word related to them and an orthographic task in which they analyze the letter in the word. The results of the experiment indicate that the words which where encoded semantically and are related to the self have greater recall.
Question 11.11. (TCOs 7, 8) “The effectiveness of memory retrieval is directly related to the similarity of cues present when the memory was encoded to the cues present when the memory is retrieved.” What concept does this statement describe? (Points : 5)
An important part of gaining understanding of other perceptions is acknowledging that what a person takes away from a particular event can be different from another’s view of the same event. People make judgements of others based on the past and if past instances are negative then present situations and the people involved will be judged in a negative light.
A student’s ability to transfer information is pretty crucial to a student’s success in the future. Being able to transfer information makes it easier for them to learn new information’s. In an article called Teaching for Transfer in the Common Care Era by Peter Dewitz and Michael F. Graves (150) they give us several examples of how students use it. Their first example was about the silent “e” rule, and how
Research has shown that there is “greater activation in the left inferior frontal and medial temporal lobes” (Stanford, 2006, p. 208) during the encoding of words which were later remembered as compared to those which were forgotten. The sensations perceived by sensory nerves are decoded in the hippocampus of the brain into a single experience (Mastin, 2010). The hippocampus analyses new information and compares and asssociates it with previously stored memory (Mastin, 2010). Human memory is associative in that new information can be remembered better if it can be associated to previously acquired, firmly consolidated information (Mastin, 2010). The various pieces of information are then stored in different parts of the brain (Mastin, 2010). Though the exact method by which this information is later identified and recalled has yet to be discovered, it is understood that ultra-short term sensory memory is converted into short term memory which can then later be consolidated into long term memory (Mastin, 2010).
The combined findings provide the foundation for the hypothesis that there is more than one kind of memory, or rather that skill-based memories must be organised differently from fact-based memories since the former seem to be preserved in amnesia as opposed to the latter.
Chapter 12 social psychology cover how we affect one another’s behaviors. Culture, stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination attitude, and interpersonal attraction are all factors that contribute to behavior in a social setting. Understanding how we influence one another on a social level forces us to look at not only ourselves, but also look at how others affect the world we live in and why it is important to be able to identify these influences and the impact they have on our behaviors good or bad
Stimulus Discrimination • The tendency of a CR to be weaker or not occur to the CSs that are dissimilar to the original CS or that have undergone extinction. Classical conditioning • Establishing a learned association between two stimuli. (Pavlov and dogs) Operant Conditioning • The imposition of a contingencies, either deliberate or natural. (reinforcer and punisher) Little Albert Experiment • Watson and Rayner 1920 • When presented with a white rat, a disturbing noise. Became afraid of other white colored things (white dogs, fur coats, santa claus) Negative reinforcement • Something unpleasant is moved away or doesn’t happen when the desired behavior is performed. Chapter 5: Acoustic encoding • The process of remembering and comprehending something that you hear. Repetition of words or putting information into a song or rhythm uses acoustic encoding. Semantic encoding • A specific type of encoding in which the meaning of something (a word, phrase, picture, event, whatever) is encoded as opposed to the sound or vision of it. Research suggests that we have better memory for things we associate meaning to and store using semantic encoding. Iconic encoding • Very brief sensory memory of some visual stimuli, that occur in the form of mental pictures. Stored for shorter periods of time than echoic memories. Memory retrieval • The process of extracting knowledge fro long term memory. Curve of forgetting • The
“Once a student has reached the point of knowledge transformation they are using critical thinking skills.” Hodges (2015). Looking back to when I was in grade school as long as we could score a good grade on the test, it didn’t matter if we remembered the material or not. Very rarely did the teachers ever make a big deal about applying the knowledge that we were getting. I believe that students retain the knowledge better by applying it and committing it to their long term memory. I wish that there was more emphasis on applying knowledge when I was growing up as there is now. It will be my goal when I become a teacher to do my very best to encourage my students and give them the tools to apply the knowledge they are learning throughout the school
Learning is a very important aspect of humans and creatures alike. Not only is it essential to the survival and adaption into this world but it also defines who we are as individuals (Schiller et al, 2010; Tronson & Taylor, 2007). Memories from past experiences shape the people that we are today. A crucial element to learning is memory, without it we would not be able to retain information. The process of memory is very distinct and consists of several different stages: acquisition of memory, consolidation, retrieval and then either reconsolidation or extinction (Debiec & Ledoux, 2004; Diergaarde, Schoffelmeer & De Vries, 2008). As memory is such a critical aspect of learning, it is no wonder that its distinct process has become the topic of much research in the neurobiological universe (Hupbach et al, 2007; Nader & Hardt, 2009).
Encoding Specificity is very important in understanding how memory is retrieved and stored. Memory is easier to be recalled when this information is encoded. The encoding specificity is best understood by looking at the associations between contextual cues that were formed during the encoding and the information that needed to be encoded in the memory. Most encoding specificity is associated with cue-recall of specific episodic memory (Wardell & Read, 2013). Encoding specificity has cues that help associate it with the target that is being presented. This helps because they can retrieve information that was stored in their memory. By encoding specificity, the cue helps them search their memory to remember what the target was.
Social psychology, the study of how we think about, influence, and relate to another, can be used to explain many situations and phenomena that happen in the world. For instance, it can be used to explain why and how people react the way they do when they perform poorly in an act that they’re usually good at, also known as self-serving bias. It is blaming external factors when bad things happen, but contributing internal factors to the reason why good things happen.