Transformational Leadership By James Macgregor Burns And Later Refined By Bernard M. Bass

1385 WordsJun 15, 20156 Pages
Transformational Leadership (TFL) Initially developed in 1978 by James MacGregor Burns and later refined by Bernard M. Bass in 1985 and 1990, transformational leadership (TFL) emerged from the perceived need for visionary leaders and the idea of leadership as symbolic action. Furthermore, TFL stems from the cultural, interpretive approach that proposed that leaders should engage in and manage sense-making processes on behalf of employees, shaping the organizational culture and reality (Bass & Riggio, 2006; Burns & Avolio, 2004). In fact, management scholar, Edgar Shein (1992) claimed that “the unique and essential function of leadership is the manipulation of culture” (as cited in Mumby, 2013, p. 264). As a result, transformational leadership distinguishes between managerial and leadership roles (as previously discussed) and two distinct approaches to leadership—transactional versus transformational leadership. Firstly, transactional leadership is aligned with more classical, managerial views of leadership, involving exchanges between leaders and employees in which the former sets goals and expectations and compensates and rewards the latter for fulfilling those expectations (Mumby, 2013, p. 265). On the other hand, transformational leadership is considered a new approach to leadership theory where leaders recognize and raise the aspirations of organizational members so that they think and act beyond their own self-interests (Burns, 1978). Therefore, transformational

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