At the start of the 18th century, Middle Eastern countries witnessed their Eastern neighbors being overtaken by Western Europe and were faced with a choice: to pick apart or to be picked apart. It was from this dilemma that defensive developmentalism emerged in the Middle East. Empires such as the Ottomans, Persia, Tunisia, and Egypt began the process of centralizing their authority in order to assert effective control over their populations. The chief goal of defensive developmentalism for these empires was to assert their autonomy, whether that be autonomy from the Ottomans in the case of Egypt and Tunisia, or from outside imperialists in the Ottoman Empire and Persia. In order to accomplish these goals, defensive developmentalists undertook extensive reforms to establish their empires as relevant worldwide powers.
The Middle East is a region of Western Asia and Egypt; some of the countries in this region are Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Iraq. According to Anderson, Seibert & Wagner (2006), this region is of vast geo-economic importance and since ancient times, it has been a center of world affairs. This part matters to almost all superpowers. The geographic factors that contribute to the strategic importance of the Middle East are; trade routes, oil, terrain or geography, ideology, and faith. The Middle East has always been a destination for both tourists and entrepreneurs.
How was world history depicted in the past? Was it depicted the same way as it is now? Hitherto, people believe world history is the history of the entire globe, including every country. However, the perceptions and definitions of world history have changed over time. In the past, world history meant Western history and Islam was not included. History was biased and still continues to be due to various factors as Bentley discusses. Understanding the meaning of orientalism and its true definition assists one to understand how imperative world history is to the study of the “Global Middle East.” In addition, the “Global Middle East” is a more efficient and accurate name than the socially constructed reference name, the “Middle East” because Islam exists globally, not only in the Middle East. The aforementioned point also proves the significance of the author’s view and perspective on history; it determines how readers will depict the event or era. Understanding a few Islamic historical events will clarify why world history is important and why the Global Middle East is being studied. The three events/eras that will be discussed are: the Roman Empire and its effect on the Global Middle East (306-337 CE), Ottoman religious propaganda in the 1530s, and the French invading Egypt in 1798. (class discussion 9/29)
The Middle East is far from monumental and homogenous. Its differences have been a source of both strength and inspiration. The most visible, most pervasive, and the least recognized aspects of
Throughout Middle Eastern, beginning in the 1800’s many changes and continuities have occurred and shaped what there national identity is in present day. Religion and literature have remained a continuous factor throughout this time period; where as a very successful oil discovery and currently changing government help shape the Middle Eastern national identity
The modern conception of the Middle East was molded in the early 20th century. The French and the British both formulated their foreign policy in the Middle East to help advance their own self interests. Power hungry and desperate for new land, British and French governments struggled to shape the Middle East. Britain’s unwillingness to learn about the people living in the Middle East, coupled with their underestimation of Arab nationalism, made for an inauspicious state. People in these Middle Eastern nations were unable to advocate for themselves and were taken advantage of by corrupt government officials or imperializing western powers. The French and British erred by disregarding pertinent information about the nationalist feelings of the
While taking the class of Early Modern European History there was two states that really stuck out and peaked my interest the most. They were the Ottoman Empire and Early Modern Europe. If you compare and contrast both the Ottoman Empire and Early Modern Europe during the 16th Century through the 18th Century, you will see that there are a number of similarities as well as differences when you look at the expansion of the states. You will also see many of these contrasts as well when you look in terms of each states military and commerce. Although the Ottoman Empire existed before the 16th century and continued to exist past the 18th century and in great decline until the early 20th century, when looking at the state as a whole the time
The Ottoman Empire, one of the greatest empire on the longest one industry this empire dominant Far East Europe Middle East Africa and Asia, remarkable location enable this empire to go for a long time through several reasons the most important ones: centralization, all power within one person, Education and Judicial systems are run by the state, religion is substantial within the core of the empire. Ruthless when it comes to deal with a local leader’s, position and powers are being given to the ones who deserve it , united by Islamic ideology , taking best ideas from other cultures and make them their own , very strong army . All of those reasons maintain the power of the Ottoman Empire. That's what made it rules for several centuries. One of the things behind the powerful Ottoman Empire , that other religious are organized according to the millet , religious attic geographical communities with limited power and regulate their own affairs but everything under the supervision of the Ottoman administration . The battles between Muslims and Christians churches were converted to mosques and mosques and to churches according to who was the winner. Muhammad did not suppress the Christian faith itself. Sultan Mahmud was also influenced by the Islamic rule that Muslims should show respect to all religious.
This mixture of ethnicities, there are major conflicts of religious, territorial order (including the struggle for water) and economic (because of oil). During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries two main events changed the relationship between Middle east and Europe; Napoleonic Invasion and The decline of the Ottoman Empire and the British.
World War I and the peace conference that followed after “shaped the outlines of today’s Middle East” , because the significant events involved in both led to the creation of new borders that would determine how the Middle East is configured in the present. One of the results of the war was the fall of the Ottoman Empire, which at the time had ruled over a vast majority of the Middle East. The Paris Peace conference proposed a plan to allow European countries to expand into the Middle East after the destruction of the Ottoman Empire. However, this plan was not supported by the U.S. Senate because of the conferences rejection of President Wilson’s Fourteen Point Plan and was ultimately rejected. Instead, Britain and France carried out the Sykes-Picot agreement that they had initially created in secret before the end of the war, which would divide up the Ottoman Empire between the two.
Often called “The Crossroads of the World”, the Middle East stands between three continents: Asia, Africa, and Europe. Over thousands of years, migrating traders and conquerors crossed this region and spread the ideas, inventions, and achievements of many civilizations. It is an incredibly important part of the world with rich history, important resources, and deep religious and cultural traditions. However, in the past decades up to today, the Middle East has been consumed by conflict and chaos. Although different circumstances surround each issue, religion, terrorism, disputes over the control of natural resources, and weak governance primarily allow conflict to persist in the Middle East.
In the 1900's at the twilight of a fresh new century in the 700th year of its presence the Ottoman E, moire started to die a brutal, climatic death. The team that damaged this elder and once powerful state launched the Middle East, Europe, and the world, but this enhanced instability and chaos. The Ottoman Empire was one of the most triumphant empire in the Middle East until WW1, thats where it all began. During WW1 the Ottoman Empire took the side of the Central Powers, and they were against the Allied Powers. As the war went on the Central Powers were losing and continued to lose. So the war ends and the ryAllied Powers came out with the victory, and this leads to the Ottoman Empire being weakened strongly. However, after WW1 Britain and France went on to dividing the Empire,
The primary source that I have chosen is “Turkish Embassy Letters” written by Lady Wortley Montagu and edited by Malcolm Jack. In this reading the author describes her journey in the Middle East. She gives her perspective on her adventure, which is very important because it can help eliminate orientalism and the negative views about the Middle East. It also gives us an idea on how the Middle East looked like during the 1700s. Orientalism still exists today and I will be showing examples from the text on how Montagu’s trip proves how orientalism is wrong. Edward Said stated that, “American understanding of the Orient will seem considerably less dense (Orientalism Pg. 2).” Everyone has their own assumptions and I believe this reading can help eliminate the assumptions of the Middle East and to improve awareness of orientalism.
World War I profoundly changed the political geology of the Middle East. The Ottoman Empire had for some time been the 'Sick Man of Europe,' draining domain for about a century. It lost control of its European belongings preceding the war and, having aligned with the defeated Central Powers, lost its Middle Eastern domains a short time later. The victorious Allies changed the Middle East into its present frame, with its European-outlined names, flags, and borders. Ottoman provinces got to be Arab kingdoms, while Christian and Jewish enclaves were cut out in Lebanon and
World War I ended in 1918, although the vanquishment of the Ottoman Empire on behalf of the Allies especially that of Europe has led to a domino effect in which the Middle East still hasn't and probably will never bounce back from. The faint of the Middle east inevitably fell to the hands of the Europeans chiefly that of Great Britain and France, and because of the dismantled state of the economy and government the Middle East would become a breeding ground for imperialism with Great Britain and France as its partakers in it. Nevertheless, one can see that because of the Sykes-Picot agreement and the Mandate system the Europeans imperialistic mindset would lay the foundation to the mordern middle East.