Transmission Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus ( Hiv )

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Huge strides in the United States in controlling the rate of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been made resulting in a significant decrease of its incidence since the epidemic advent. During the epidemic’s height in the 1980s of the United States, the CDC estimated its incidence at about 150,000 new infections per year. This figure plateaued and dropped significantly during the 1990s due to introduction of highly effective antiviral treatments and due to a overall public cultural shift with promotion of HIV education, HIV testing, and condom use, especially among the LGBT community which was affected disproportionately by HIV infection. However, during the 2000s, a small, growing trend of incidence rates was seen,…show more content…
It was estimated that between the years of 2006 and 2009 alone, the number of new HIV infections among all 13 to 24 year olds due to male-to-male sexual contact increased from 61% to 71%, respectively. This has many implications for public health efforts because previously those most affected by HIV infection were adult men who have sex with men (MSM). The current research and work to reduce HIV is therefore mainly aimed at the MSM population, which may not translate to curbing infection rates in YMSM. In fact, studies that have looked at individual risk factors (i.e. unprotected anal intercourse, or UAI) seen in MSM populations as associated to increased risk of HIV infection among YMSM have found large inconsistencies. Current theories in the literature suggest that individual characteristics, social norms, and behavioral patterns within the YMSM population are highly interrelated and evolving, and individually can not predict accurately who among the YMSM population is at most risk. One particular compounding variable is the growing use of technology. YMSM are using technology (i.e. GPS compatible smartphones) to seek sexual partners which is largely changing their constructed social environment and relationship patterns. Therefore, there is a call to use a more multivariate model of risks to better understand useful preventative strategies to
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