Trauma And Its Effects On The Survivors Of Such Violence

3170 WordsNov 13, 201413 Pages
Trauma to most people can be defined as a deeply distressing or disturbing experience. The risk of experiencing trauma has been a natural part of the human existence since we evolved as a species. Attacks by giant hyenas, snakes, or tigers 100,000 years ago and life threatening automobile accidents in the twenty-first century have probably produced similar psychological ramifications in the survivors of such violence. Following trauma people may experience a wide range of normal responses, both physical reactions like sudden sweating and emotional reactions like shock, fear, or anxiety are common. Truly, the notion that a person may develop symptoms, which are mostly subjective and usually not connected with any openly defined somatic…show more content…
The paper will cover a detailed description of PTSD and information on the diagnostic criteria. It will also cover the etiology and epidemiology of the disorder. Along with the aforementioned topics, diagnostic changes from the DSM-IV-TR to the DSM-V will also be discussed. Lastly, the prognostic course and current treatments in the field for this disorder will be reviewed. The essential feature to understanding the scientific basis and clinical expression of PTSD is the idea that characteristic symptoms develop following exposure to one or more traumatic events. A traumatic event was originally hypothesized as a catastrophic stressor that was outside the range of what a human would regularly experience (APA, 1980). Criterion A for PTSD indicates that exposure to actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violence is required to make the diagnosis (APA, 2013). There are four ways by which a person can experience trauma and meet criteria for the diagnosis of PTSD. A person could directly experience the traumatic event, directly experienced traumatic events in criterion A include, but are certainly not limited to being taken hostage, torture, natural disasters, and severe motor vehicle accidents. Interestingly terminal medical conditions are not necessarily considered traumatic unless they are unexpected and calamitous such as waking up in the middle of surgery (APA, 2013). Another way an individual can experience trauma is by witnessing the event in person
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