Traumatic Brain Injury Essay

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Traumatic Brain Injury Traumatic brain injury, also called acquired brain injury or simply head injury, is a result of a sudden blow to the head when an external force is applied causing a disruption of the physiological stability of the brain locally. It can also occur when an object pierces the skull and enters the brain tissue and when elevation in the intracranial pressure occurs and potentially dramatic changes in the blood flow within and to the brain. These changes may produce a diminished or altered state of consciousness. Traumatic brain injury is a nondegenerative, noncongential defect in which there may be permanent or temporary impairments to cognition, physical, and psychosocial functions. Various terms are used to…show more content…
Depending on the velocity, mass, shape, and direction of the impact determines the degree of injury. The higher the velocity the more the damage to the brain tissue. As with any open area to the body, the patient is at high risk for infection related to an object piercing the skull and from environmental contamination. Closed head injuries are caused by blunt trauma in which a concussion, contusion, and laceration to the brain may result. The most severe of the closed head injuries is anoxal injury (diffuse type). Diffuse anoxal injury is used related to high speed acceleration/deceleration as with automobile accidents. (Workman, 2006). With this type of injury there is significant damage to the axons in the white matter. Lesions may be found in the corpus callosum, midbrain, cerebellum and upper brainstem. Depending on the severity, small areas of hemorrhage followed by possible enlargement of the lateral ventricles may be detected on CT scan. For severe cases, the majority present in a coma. Survivors usually require long term care. There are other factors that must be considered in the dynamics of head injuries: acceleration and deceleration. An acceleration injury is caused by an external force placing the head in motion. A deceleration injury occurs when the moving head suddenly is stopped or hits an object. These forces can result in shearing, straining, and distortion of brain tissue, particularly of

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