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Trephining Research Paper

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Trephining The oldest known surgical procedure is trephining (htt). This procedure is the removal of a piece of the skull bone. There are four different ways that trephining can be preformed. The four different methods include: rectangular, boring and cutting, scraping, and grooving (htt). During a rectangular trephining, the cuts are made with an obsidian, flint, a stone knife or and metal knife known as tumi. The skull is cut similar to a tic-tac-toe board, with the middle square is cut out (htt). During a boring and cutting trephining, the cuts are made with a crown-saw called trephine. The skull gets two holes cut within it. The area between the two holes are then chiseled or cut out (htt).
During a scraping trephining, a flint or glass is used. The surgeon doing this procedure would use the glass or flint and scape some of the skull off (htt).
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The piece of bone that was cut out is called rondelles (htt1). In Prehistoric societies, trephining was used to release the evil spirits. They believed that an evil spirit or spirits were causing the person to have a mental illness. They believed that the spirits were in the head, because that is where the person’s illness was. Therefore, they cut a hole in the skull to release the evil spirit and free the person (David Sue).
Hippocratic corpus is the earliest detailed account of trephining. In Hippocratic medicine, trephining was used to let the stagnant blood flow out of the body. They believed it would turn to
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