First, children¡¯s acquisition of language is an innate mechanism that enables a child to analyze language and extract the basic rules of grammar, granted by Chomsky. It basically states that humans are born with a language acquisition device that, the ability to learn a language rapidly as children. However, there is one important controversy in language acquisition concerns how we acquire language; since Chomsky fails to adequately explain individual differences. From the behaviorists¡¯ perspectives, the language is learned like other learned behaviors. It is learned through operant
Two theories of primary language acquisition emerged from 1950s psychological research: B.F. Skinner’s behaviorist theory and Noam Chomsky’s biological theory of language development. Primary language acquisition addresses specifically the way in which an infant’s native language is beginning to form, starting at birth. Primary language acquisition continues to develop throughout the rest of childhood within the critical period.
All language theorists acknowledge nature and nurture both play significant roles in children’s language development. However, the theoretical debate to whether nature or nurture is the dominant tool during a child’s language
There are many sociologist, anthropologist, educational scholars, and linguistics that also have insights on how first language is developed and can be improve. Some believe that the environmental habitat impacts first language acquisition. While others favor that social interaction plays a larger role in developing a first language. Going beyond the beliefs of how language is developed behaviorally or socially, Paul Broca studied how the left part of the brain processes language. As you can see, there has been a wide range of study behind language.
For most children there is no clear reason as to why there is a delay in the development of speech, language and communication skills. Therefore, an adult should never assume that the child’s speech, language and communication problems are due to hearing loss. It may be that the child is experiencing communicating difficulties that are unrelated to their hearing problems because the child may not have acquired the vocabulary necessary to express his thoughts and actions.
There are 4 theoretical perspectives. The different theoretical perspectives vary in their focus on the role of nature and nurture as well as the emphasis on one or more of the five aspects of language knowledge. Throughout this chapter, the focus will be on recognizing how nature and nurture interact and can be related. It provides a framework for understanding the complex ways children develop language as they interact with people and objects in their environment, school and home
Analyse the importance of early identification of speech, language and communication delays and disorders and the potential risks of late recognition.
As a result of his delay in speech and language skills, Joshua will receive Speech therapy as one of his early childhood intervention services. Joshua is 3.8 years old performing at 3.1 years old. In addition, Joshua’s expressive language skills are at a 2.9-year level. Joshua exhibits difficulty with age appropriate concepts, expressive and receptive language skills, vocabulary and maintaining focus. Furthermore, Joshua’s speech intelligibility is poor to fair, which negatively impacts his social language skills especially in a large group setting. According to the Speech and Language Chart (2nd Ed.) children from 2 ½ -3 years old should have speech intelligibility of approximately 80%. Joshua speech is judged to be more than 33% delayed.
Students with speech and language impairment are often in general or regular classrooms. To help students with this type of disorders early intervention is way to address this communication problem. Children who are often classify, as high risk are those with chronic ear infection, genetic defects, alcohol syndrome, neurological defects or delayed language. Those who treat this disorders are called speech language pathologist and they could treat as young as 3. Around the age of two most children say around 50 or more words. At the age of there are very chatty and can begin to put sentences together. Also at three they begin to discover that different words having meaning. When the child is delay or one of the components of communication is disrupted the child is at risk for a language
Additionally, more than one third of children with minimal hearing loss fail at least one grade and exhibit social and/or emotional problems by the fourth grade. Such difficulties can often persist throughout the lifetime of an individual with a hearing impairment. The United States Department of Health states that the future of the child with hearing loss depends on early identification of hearing loss and its appropriate management. Landmark studies showed that with early identification and intervention prior to six months of age, children are able to achieve near age appropriate language skills (Baroch, 2003). Children with hearing loss born in hospitals that implemented UNHS were 2.6 times more likely than children with hearing loss born in non-screening hospitals of having language development within the normal range of development (Yoshinaga-Itano, 2003). Yoshinaga-Itano, Sedey, Coulter, & Mehl (1998) showed that children who were identified with hearing loss and received intervention services before the age of 6 months had significantly better receptive and expressive language scores than children identified after the age of 6 months. Early identified children with intervention have language development similar to their nonverbal cognitive development
Language development deals with how a child develops his/her language skills during their growth period. Language development has been an issue debated among language experts over a long period of time. Experts have opposing views on how a child acquires/learns language. There are four main theories of language development and they all have different thoughts on the acquisition of language. Behaviorists (Skinner) believe that language is learned. Nativists (Chomsky) believe that language is innate and unique to humans. Cognitive theorists (Piaget) believe language is not innate but a product of cognitive development. Finally, social interactionists
Any intervention plan needs to include three components to be successful. The first being clinical expertise of the professionals that the disorder pertains to. Therefore, with speech being the target, a speech language pathologist would use his/her clinical judgment. The next factor includes current research and studies that involve the disorder being targeted. The intervention plan needs to be based in science, and there needs to have been previous research done to prove its effectiveness. This assures both the clinician and the client that the treatment will yield results if preformed correctly. The most important aspect is the last component, involving the child and their caregivers. It is pertinent that the patient is the main focus of all decisions, and with young infants that includes the caregiver/s as well. In order to devise a proper intervention plan, the patient and the caregiver/s concerns and wants need to be met. If patient or caregiver would like to target a specific difficulty, it is the clinician’s responsibility to use their professional expertise and current research to compose a plan that best suits the client and his/her needs. (Ritzman,
If they have a hearing loss is it very important to begin planning for your child’s educational future as soon as possible. Early Intervention services are designed to work with children early so that they can enter into preschool and elementary school ready to succeed. The Alexander Graham website says “there are three different goals that are important to any plan: a service plan developed as early as possible after the child’s diagnosis, heavy involvement by families in the development and execution of the agreed upon plan, and a highly structured plan that provides clear and measureable
There are several theories regarding language development. Work by Chomsky, Piaget and Kuhl are critical. Studies by Chomsky, as examined by Albery, Chandler, Field, Jones, Messer, Moore and Sterling (2009); Deloache, Eisenberg & Siegler (2003) argued for the innateness of language acquisition due to its complexity. Development is assisted by a language acquisition device (LAD) and universal grammar both of which holding the propensity for commonalities throughout all languages. LAD is the key to the Syntax rule. The knowledge to master the rules is held unconsciously. Chomsky concludes exposure through auditory channels as being the only requirement for learning. Arguably Kuhl (2010) writes infantile exposure to language through auditory channels only, does not contribute effectively to learning indicating the importance of human interaction. Piaget, as discussed by Ault (1977) postulated language as not being part of the earliest stages of development. Signifying within sensorimotor stage, between birth and two years, the child’s development is too reflexive. Gleitman, Fridlund and Reisberg (2004) discuss the critical period hypothesis and suggest the young brain being more suited to acquisition than the adult brain. Lenneberg (1967) (as cited in Gleitman et al 2004) advocates, brain maturation closes language acquisition capacity window. Kuhl (2010) identified, within the critical period babies develop
Therefore, from the behaviourist approach, language acquisition can be seen as a stimulus-response process. Children learn language by immitation and analogy. The roles of imitation, repetition, reinforcement, and motivation are essential in learning the language. The First Language Acquisition is thus the result of nature which based on practicing.