Tthe Role of Amoeba in Human Disease

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Review the Role of Amoeba in Human Disease
Introduction
Free-living amoebae (FLA) are eukaryotic organism found ubiquitously in nature. They are found in soil (dust), air, water and air, which provide amoeba multiple opportunities to spread (c). These can be pathogenic or non-pathogenic. Pathogenic FLA can invade and cause opportunistic and non-opportunistic infections in humans, which are found in the genus Acanthamoeba, Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri, and Sappinia pedata (b). Hartmannella is a genus of amoeba which is in water systems of drinking water, cooling towers and hospitals. They are capable of harbouring micro-organisms like bacteria or pathogenic yeasts. This helps the micro-organisms to develop and spread (d) (e). Discussion
In Mexico city, in a survey looking at pathogenic and FLA inhabiting swimming pool water it was found that the most and least common species of amoeba was Naegleria gruberi Schardinger ( 59.02%) , Naegleria fowleri (16.77%), Acanthamoeba castellanii (7.64%) and Thecamoeba verrucosa (0.12%). (a)
Naegleria has 30 different species.Naegleria Fowleri species is a thermo-tolerant ameobaflagellate, which causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) that affects the Central Nervous System (CNS). Children and young adults exposed to polluted fresh water after 1 to 2 days experience PAM. (c)
N. fowleri found in soil and water is highly susceptible to environmental changes by growing near hot springs with temperatures

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