Tuberculosis : A Global Healthcare Challenge With Increasing Prevalence Of Multidrug Resistances

2002 Words Dec 11th, 2014 9 Pages
Abstract:
Tuberculosis (TB) is a global healthcare challenge with increasing prevalence of multidrug resistances (1). TB control can begin at the diagnostic level and nanotechnology presents innovative detections at a point-of-care setting (2). This case study covers the mechanism of action of rifampicin drug resistances in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its application to point-of-care nanodiagnostics. Potential nanodiagnostics are evaluated and pharmacist’s clinical role is considered in emerging anti-TB drug resistances.
Introduction:
Tuberculosis (TB) – an infectious respiratory disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), continues to be one of 21th century’s greatest public health concerns. Attempts at controlling and eliminating TB globally have proven more difficult than suspected for a multitude of reasons. TB is highly transmissible through person-to-person contact in the form of aerosols and droplets infecting 9 million and a death rate of 1.5 million (1, 3). In the last decade, there have been a rising number of drug-resistances (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistance (XDR-TB) cases (3, 4). The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimated 480,000 incidences of MDR-TB and 210,000 MDR-TB attributed deaths in 2013 alone (3). By definition, MDR-TB is Mtb developing resistance to front-line antibiotics: rifampicin and isoniazid (4). In addition to being MDR-TB, XDR-TB is also resistant to fluoroquinolone drugs and capreomycin, kanamycin…
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