Tuberculosis : A Global Healthcare Challenge With Increasing Prevalence Of Multidrug Resistances
2002 Words9 Pages
Tuberculosis (TB) is a global healthcare challenge with increasing prevalence of multidrug resistances (1). TB control can begin at the diagnostic level and nanotechnology presents innovative detections at a point-of-care setting (2). This case study covers the mechanism of action of rifampicin drug resistances in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its application to point-of-care nanodiagnostics. Potential nanodiagnostics are evaluated and pharmacist’s clinical role is considered in emerging anti-TB drug resistances.
Tuberculosis (TB) – an infectious respiratory disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), continues to be one of 21th century’s greatest public health concerns. Attempts at…show more content… A major contributing factor to increase Mtb resistance is patient non-compliance where TB treatments often require 6-8months of complicated combination antibiotics (1). Furthermore, a growing epidemic of AIDs infected TB patients have exacerbated the spread of drug resistance TB (1).
Control of TB at its fundamentals can start at the level of diagnosis. Last year, WHO estimated only 136 000 of 300 000 MDR-TB patients were diagnosed and reported, highlighting the need for better diagnostic tools to provide timely and effective TB treatments (3). Present TB diagnostic methods such as sputum smear microscopy and Xpert MTB/RIF falls short of WHO’s standard for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics identified as ‘ASSURED’: affordable, sensitive, specific, user-friendly, rapid and robust, equipment free and delivery to those in need (5, 6). Although ASSURED is intended for sexually transmitted infection diagnostics, however, its requirements can be implicated on a wider scale to TB (6). Xpert MTB/RIF is costly with portability issues, while sputum smear microscopy has low sensitivity and requires 4-8 weeks for cultures analysis (2). The advent of nanotechnology opens up innovative advancements in TB diagnostics, filling the gaps left by traditional methods and its potential usage among pharmacists within the chain of response to this disease.
Acquired drug resistance describes the bacteria’s continuous adaptive response against antimicrobial