TUBERCULOSIS Tuberculosis, commonly known as TB is a disease that has seen its prevalence not only in
Tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by a germ (bacterium) called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This germ primarily affects the lungs and may infect anyone at any age. In the United States, the number of TB cases steadily decreased until 1986 when an increase was noted; TB has continued to rise since. Today, ten million individuals are infected in the U.S., as evidenced by positive skin tests, with approximately 26,000 new cases of active disease each year. The increase in TB cases is related to HIV/AIDS, homelessness, drug abuse and immigration of persons with active infections. How is TB Contracted? TB is a contagious or infectious disease that is spread from person-to- person. A person is usually infected by Since the advent of anti-tuberculosis drugs in the 1940s, the treatment of drug susceptible tuberculosis has become highly effective if administered and taken properly. Treatment no longer requires prolonged hospital stays. In many cases, a patient with a new case of TB can be treated at home. Others will enter the
Tuberculosis: A Disease Lying in Wait Tuberculosis (TB) truly is everywhere. It does not discriminate by age or race. It doesn't care where you live or were you come from. It can infect anyone, at anytime, in any place in the world, and it can wait in the body patiently for an opportunity to attack. All tuberculosis needs is for its host to breathe it in and let it find its way into the lungs, lodging within the alveolar sacs. Thankfully, however, TB is fairly hard to catch.
Preferred alternative and rationale for choice: Tuberculosis is not only an infectious disease; this disease also raises questions in regards to social awareness on the individual level on how it can affect each and every community around the world so differently. TB, this infectious disease, is not only a medical condition that needs to be treated yet it brings psychological approaches. Psychological approaches that include finding an improved management method so that the community affected is able to accept the issues and react to them. Finding the social factors by developing creative approaches within the complex society by utilizing the good intentions and interactions within the society. By properly approaching the disease to
Infectious diseases are one of the most challenging adversities that the human race faces. Diseases that once wiped out large populations are now well understood, preventative measures can be taken, and effective treatment methods provided. However, as science has evolved so have the infectious diseases that are seen. An example of an infectious disease that has been studied and continues to be seen today is Tuberculosis. Tuberculosis has been a health hazard for many centuries and was once an epidemic. Medical advances and studies have been able to enlighten not only the etiology, but also the mode of transmission, ways to diagnose, and ways to treat and/or manage infection.
The respiratory tract is the most common site for infection by pathogens, because it comes in contact with the physical environment and is exposed to the air. We will review the causative agent, symptoms, preferred treatment, laboratory identification tests and priority nursing
Tuberculosis _ Epidemiology and Nursing Research. Concepts in Community & Public Health NRS427V November14, 2013 Tuberculosis _Epidemiology and Nursing Research. Communicable diseases occurs in every country regardless of urban, rural, or with socio economical diversities. In
Tuberculosis, also known as TB, is a very common bacterial infection. It can travel through your bloodstream and infect any organ in your body. It can be in an inactive form, which means these people will never develop symptoms. Those with weaker immune systems are more likely to have an active TB infection. Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is also the scientific name of tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a long, slender, straight (sometimes slightly curved) rod. It is neither gram-positive, nor gram-negative because it has a high lipid content within its wall. Because of this, acid-fast staining is used. Mycobacteria tuberculosis reproduce by binary fission which is a form of asexual reproduction. They reproduce quickest and best in an oxygenated area ("Tuberculosis", 2016). Below, you will find all you need to know about tuberculosis, including epidemiology, incubation and duration, signs and symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and even a case study on TB itself.
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant global public health issue, ranking as the second leading cause of mortality after the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In 2013, there were an estimated 9 million new cases and 1.5 million associated deaths.1 A substantial proportion of the world’s population is also affected by humanitarian crises each year, resulting in high numbers of both internally displaced persons (IDPs) and refugees.2 By the end of 2013 there were approximately 51.2 million people forcibly displaced (including 33.3 million IDPs), 6 million more than in the previous year.3 Despite a decline in worldwide TB prevalence over the last decade – largely attributed to effective diagnosis and treatment interventions – TB-associated
Tuberculosis is common health problem that affects many people all around the world. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) define Tuberculosis as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This particular bacterium attacks the lungs, but TB bacteria can attack any area of the body. This disease was once the leading cause of death
People who abuse drug or are chronic alcoholics People who were not treated adequately for TB infection in the past How is Tuberculosis Diagnosed? TB is diagnosed with a TB skin test or a blood test. Tuberculin skin text or the Mantoux test is performed by injecting a small amount of fluid called tuberculin into the forearms on the top layer of the skin. It should be read 48 to 72 hours after. A positive TB skin test means that the person came in contact with an infected person but does not mean the person does necessarily have TB disease. The blood test examines the reaction seen in the person’s blood to the bacteria that cause TB. A positive blood test means that the person has been infected but not necessarily has TB disease. If TB is suspected, further testing is needed. A health care provider will review the persons medical history, perform a medical examination, obtain a chest x-ray, a sputum test, and run more tests to ensure proper diagnosis of any case of TB
Tuberculosis is a prime leading health problem throughout the universe. It is the second utmost cause of death from a contagious agent killing nearly 20 million people each year. There are two major elements that are contributing to the current TB endemic and its combined morbidity and mortality include; growing human immunodeficiency virus outbreaks and rising prevalence of resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains of the most effective anti-TB drugs. Another causative to the development of resistance is the destitute quality of drugs, improper treatment management, patient non-cooperation and malabsorption due to other integral conditions. This paper is comprised of the pathophysiology of TB, etiology, diagnosis, signs and
Tuberculosis, also identified as TB, has been around for countless years. In the past, however, the disease was not known, which made it untreatable in most healthcare settings. The evolution of time made it possible to easily detect and manage tuberculosis before people were adversely affected by it. It is a disease that often affects an individual’s lungs, but it can also affect other body parts. The spine, kidneys, bones, and even the lymph nodes may sometimes be affected by the disease. The spread is usually from one person with the disease to an uninfected person through the air. Whenever individuals with the TB disease cough, laugh, or even talk, the disease is spread through tiny droplets that are found in the person’s respiratory
very common, most prevalent global infectious disease Tuberculosis (TB) known since ancient times by contributing considerably to illness and death around the world. This Disease is caused by bacterium Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (“Tuberculosis (TB) cause,” 2012). Mycobacterium tuberculosis extant many years ago and has been found in relics earlier time of ancient Egypt, India, and China. Among Egyptian mummies spinal tuberculosis, known as Pott’s disease has been detected by archaeologists (Mandal,2014). Patients from some indigenous communities, are 90% at risk of TB (coulter, 2012) and it still causes 2 million deaths annually worldwide (coulter, 2012). Tuberculosis was a major health problem in U.K, as antibiotics are introduced,
Table 1 shows the antimicrobial resistance pattern for all antimicrobials agents used, and the MIC for rifampicin. Table 2 shows the relative quantification of the transcript levels for five rpfs in M. tuberculosis isolates, exposed to sub-MIC (MIC=128 mg/L) concentration of RIF.