Tuberculosis, Or More Commonly Tb

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Tuberculosis, or more commonly TB, is a chronic infection caused by the rod- shaped bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Furlan, Silva, & Marcon, 2014). This bacterium was discovered by Dr. Robert Koch in 1882, and since its discovery, TB has continued to be one of the leading cause of human mortality in the world (Cambau, & Drancourt, 2014). Regrettably, over 1/3 of the world’s populace has tuberculosis (CDC, 2016a). This grim statistic makes it very difficult to contain each occurrence of tuberculosis. This is one of the issues surrounding the disease today. Furthermore, vaccines like the Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine, exists for Tuberculosis; however, its effectiveness is dependent on region, genetic differences in the…show more content…
These stages are known as either Latent TB or Active TB. In Latent TB, a person may become infected with the TB bacteria but present asymptomatic and ultimately are not aware that they have been infected. This phenomenon occurs because macrophages phagocytizes the bacteria in the individual’s lymph nodes. However while in the lymph nodes, the bacteria is not always destroyed and they may begin to proliferate. Latent TB can turn into active TB. Initial symptoms of active TB can include fever, fatigue, coughing up blood, weight loss, and night sweats, and loss of appetite. These symptoms can be very vague, because they can mimic other illnesses. Therefore these symptoms can also go unnoticed by the affected person. This is why early detection and treatment of TB is important for individuals to help control the spread of the disease. How do you diagnose the disease? Tuberculosis disease is diagnosed through a medical evaluation involving various tests depending on the type of TB suspected. First, there are two kinds of tests that are used to detect whether or not the body has been infected with TB bacteria: the TB skin test (TST) and TB blood tests (CDC, 2016b). Both of these tests are used only to determine if the person has been infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Further testing is required to determine if the person has latent TB infection or if it has progressed to TB disease. If it is the latter additional tests are needed to
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