Give a school-based example of two of the following: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, or extinction.
Reinforcement means to strengthen, and is used in psychology to refer to anything stimulus which strengthens or increases the probability of a specific response. For example, if you want your child to do something more and more, you may give her a treat every time she does that. Thus the child will eventually know that if I do this, it will be followed by a treat and the more you praise her the more she repeats that. This might be cleaning the table after every meal that she takes and you give her praise or a tin of yoghurt for cleaning the table. Another example of reinforcement could be something happening at work when you know that a promotion comes after a hard work. This is done in different forms of reinforcements which are positive and negative reinforcement, punishment and extinction. There are also different reinforcement schedules which are fixed and variable ratios and fixed and variable intervals. All these are used in our day to day living when people are being rewarded or punished for different responses. This was done by BF Skinner through his experiments which gave him a result that any behaviour is followed by a consequence. (http://www.allpsych.com/tests/psychology/learning.html)
Keeping in mind that identifying the variables that maintain problem behavior (reinforcement) is more affective for treatment selection (Mevers, Fisher, Kelley, and Fredrick, 2014), one common treatment for problem behavior is Noncontingent reinforcement. (Carr, Severston, & Lepper, 2009). NCR is used in combination with extinction for problem behavior and involves dense schedules of reinforcement that are decreased gradually (as cited in; Phillips, Iannaccone, Rooker, and Hagopian, 2017). The problem behavior may be replaced by an alternative behavior already existing in the individual repertoire, during NCR (Virues-Ortega, Iwata, Fahmie, and Harper, 2013). The American Psychological Association’s Division 12 criteria for empirically supported treatments established NCR and extinctions as an effective treatment for problem behavior (Chambless & Hollon, 1998). When the schedules of NCR are dense there is a reduction of the Motivating operation (MO) for problem behavior (as cited in; Phillips, Iannaccone, Rooker, and Hagopian, 2017). NCR is more effective when the same reinforcement maintaining the behavior (functional reinforcement) is used in the contingency instead of an alternative reinforcement (as cited in Phillips,iannaccone, Rooker, & Hagopian, 2017). Thus, the same reinforcement responsible for maintaining problem behavior should be used in an NCR contingency (Vollmer et al. 1993). In a study by Phillips, Iannaccone, Rooker, & Hagopian (2017), Non-contingent
One of the simplest and most commonly-used methods of conceptualizing learning is that of reinforcement theory (Noe 2010: 142). Every time a parent promises a child a toy for being good during a grocery store trip or threatens a teen with being grounded for bad grades, he or she is using reinforcement theory. Reinforcement theory is based upon the assumption that people want to experience as much pleasure as possible and avoid pain. Thus, businesses offer workers bonuses for good work, and issue reprimands (such as docking pay or denying a promotion) for poor behavior.
Give a field-based example of two of the following: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, or extinction.
Reinforcement is the main contributing factor in operant conditioning. There is more than one way to go about establishing reinforcement, if a delay occurs between the response and the reinforcement the response may not become strengthened. It is likely that if the reinforcement occurs immediately after the response that there will be a definite strengthening of the response. Continuous reinforcement is when reinforcement occurs at every instance of the desired response. Intermittent reinforcement occurs when a response is reinforced some of the time. The different schedules of reinforcement influence patterns of response. Intermittent schedules offer greater resistance to extinction than continuous schedules.
Operant conditioning comes with four types of consequences: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, and negative punishment. Positive and negative reinforcement has shown to increase associated behaviors while positive and negative punishment has shown to decrease associated behaviors. For example, positive reinforcement could be giving an autistic child candy when they are taught new things. Negative reinforcement could be placing a rat in a box to try and teach it to press the bar to release food but instead sends an electric shock. As for positive punishment, we could use the same rat and after repeated shocks he understand that when he presses the bar he will get shocked. For negative punishment, if the rat continues to press the bar his food will disappear. Non-associative learning changes the size of responses to a single stimulus rather than form a connection between stimuli. Non-associative learning is split into two subcategories: habituation and sensitization. Habituation lessens our reactions to repeated experiences while sensitization enlarges our reactions to a range of stimuli following exposure to one strong
Reinforcement that occurs directly because of the students actions. No one else is needed to get the reinforcement.
The schedule of reinforcement are each variation followed a certain rule describing the behavior and reinforcement (Chance 2014, p.194). When a dog begs for food, the owner tells him no. This is an example of continuous reinforcement. Continuous reinforcement reinforces the behavior every time it happens in order to create an association with the behavior and outcome (Chance 2014, p.195). The owner is teaching the dog that the behavior is not acceptable. Another example is when I give my daughter a treat or prize for getting an hundred on her spelling test or reading a passage. She will continue the behavior because it is a positive reinforcement.
Chapter nine explained in great details what primary and secondary reinforcers are, I have to admit that before reading this chapter I was not aware of what primary and secondary reinforcers were. Since I am a runner I have to say that an ice cold bottle of water can be a pretty cool primary reinforcer after a long run and it can be also for students after the physical activity class. A secondary reinforcer can be a to get to wear technical fabric shirt (nylon, polyester or lycra) for the gym uniforms instead of cotton shirts which get wet with sweat and stays wet. Most adults from time to time like to receive some type of concrete reinforcers and children are not the exception. I believe that once in a while using concrete reinforcers in the
However, secondary reinforcers, on the flip side, are learned through experience and could be used to get primaries like water or food. A good example is money. You work to get money and then use it to get
Reinforcement is an essential part in identifying and encouraging a certain behavior. In the most classic definition, positive reinforcement is a method of identifying to children which behaviors are acceptable and appropriate and which are not (Sigler, E. & Aamidor, S, 2005). Reinforcement is often given as praise for doing a certain task. As educators, saying “great job” or a simple word like “fantastic” are expressed towards students as praise. However, when a student is struggling and praise is given such as “you are doing so well”, the negative aspects of praise present themselves. The child is aware of the empty praise therefore it may work against the teacher if it is taken as a false
1)Operant conditioning-Operant conditioning teaches certain behaviors through either rewards that increase wanted behaviors or punishments that decrease unwanted behavior.
Just before our house it was wooden bridge that made rumbling sound when car cross it over. I will know that my father is coming, when I hear that rumbling sound. I will immediately start to have anxiety, butterfly’s in my stomach. No matter what I did it was always something negative that he will say to me first thing he arrives. And of course, he must throw in stuff that happened weeks, month ago that made me feel bad. This was perfect example of classical conditioning. o this example two unrelated stimuli are, sound of the wooden bridge and my father’s comments. That conditioned me, or my body to react with fear and anxiety. Since I don’t have anything positive to say about my scenario, I will offer a definition of positive reinforcement, or could possibly be positive reinforcement in this example. If my father will say to me” Good job, you did this just right. Hight five” that will be example of positive reinforcement. Positive reinforcement straightens the behavior by giving reward afterwards. McLeod, S. A. (2015). Negative reinforce will be if he will stop giving me negative feedback of anything that I
There are two forms of reinforcement: positive and negative reinforcement. When an event occurs producing a positive effect, it is considered positive reinforcement. Negative reinforcement involves the removal of a stimulus increasing the likelihood of a positive effect. An example of this would be to take two aspirins to remove the pain from a headache.